Releasing the Truth

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Abiogenesis enigma: Protein’s origin

Proteins

As you might know, proteins are one of the major “building blocks” of cells; there’s up to 10.000 different types of proteins, all manufactured inside each cell. Abiogenesis theorists  obviously supports the view that these molecules have arisen “by chance”, in a prebiotic world, billion years ago, however, to date, they have absolutely no clue about it, as we can read from this article:

“Proteins are the most complex chemicals synthesized in nature and must fold into complicated three-dimensional structures to become active. This poses a particular challenge in explaining their evolution from non-living matter. So far, efforts to understand protein evolution have focused on domains, independently folding units from which modern proteins are formed. Domains however are themselves too complex to have evolved de novo in an abiotic environment. We think that domains arose from the fusion of shorter, non-folding peptides, which evolved as cofactors supporting a primitive, RNA-based life form (the ‘RNA world’).” 1

So, why is it so complicated to explain its origin? Despite the often repeated innuendo that life and all of its components has “assuredly” originated through natural means, the clear failure of scientists to solve this puzzle can be easily explained by some truths about proteins, its synthesis, structure and so on. After that, no one can reasonably take its abiogenetic origin as logically granted. These truths also explain without shadow of doubt the intriguing fact that absolutely no single protein (even the lesser one, composed of only 8 amino acids) has ever been observed to appear anywhere in the world, outside the cells and high-tech labs, of course!

What’s a protein?

“Proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactionsreplicating DNAresponding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in folding of the protein into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.

A polypeptide is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids;” 2

Talking about amino acids, we’d like to recall another crucial problem for abiogenesis: The absence of self-occurring homochiral mixtures. As it has been told in a previous article, the laws of thermodynamics obliges the occurrence of racemic mixtures, ever:

“The left and right handed forms have identical free energy (G), so the free energy difference (ΔG) is zero. The equilibrium constant for any reaction (K) is the equilibrium ratio of the concentration of products to reactants. The relationship between these quantities at any Kelvin temperature (T) is given by the standard equation:

K = exp (–ΔG/RT)

where R is the universal gas constant (= Avogadro’s number x Boltzmann’s constant k) = 8.314 J/K.mol.

For the reaction of changing left-handed to right-handed amino acids (L → R), or the reverse (R → L), ΔG = 0, so K = 1. That is, the reaction reaches equilibrium when the concentrations of R and L are equal; that is, a racemate is produced.”

Therefore, any abiogenetic theorist has this astounding problem to deal with from the very beginning; without homochiral monomers, we can have zero possibility of a ‘magic’ protein self-assembling…

 

Protein synthesis

 

It’s quite uncanny that intelligent people with advanced knowledge on the subject might attempt to conceive hypothesis of such molecules originating spontaneously, in the wild and morbid inorganic environment, because for cells to build proteins, an intricate, complex and laborious process must take place!

 

 

First, genetic information is needed:

“Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes. Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this protein. The genetic code is a set of three-nucleotide sets called codons and each three-nucleotide combination designates an amino acid (for example AUG (adenine-uracil-guanine) is the code for methionine).”

 

Many proteins use more that one of the 64 possible codons to be built. Moreover, that specific genetic code must be first translated, transcribed:

“Genes encoded in DNA are first transcribed into pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) by proteins such as RNA polymerase. Most organisms then process the pre-mRNA (also known as a primary transcript) using various forms of Post-transcriptional modification to form the mature mRNA, which is then used as a template for protein synthesis by the ribosome.”

Oh great, a bit complicated, isn’t it? Please, read the Wikipedia article referring to the messenger RNA, for further comprehension of what it is, its manufacturing, composition, etc; all of which adds up more complexity for the protein origin’s explanation.

 

 

The process of synthesizing a protein from an mRNA template is known as translation. The mRNA is loaded onto the ribosome and is read three nucleotides at a time by matching each codon to its base pairing anticodon located on a transfer RNA molecule, which carries the amino acid corresponding to the codon it recognizes. The enzyme aminoacyl tRNA synthetase “charges” the tRNA molecules with the correct amino acids. The growing polypeptide is often termed the nascent chain. Proteins are always biosynthesized from N-terminus to C-terminus.[6]

The size of a synthesized protein can be measured by the number of amino acids it contains and by its total molecular mass, which is normally reported in units of daltons (synonymous with atomic mass units), or the derivative unit kilodalton (kDa). Yeast proteins are on average 466 amino acids long and 53 kDa in mass.[5] The largest known proteins are the titins, a component of the muscle sarcomere, with a molecular mass of almost 3,000 kDa and a total length of almost 27,000 amino acids.[8]

 

Phew! How complicated! You may ask now: are we finally done? And I reply you: Huh, nope! Now that the ribosome, together with the rRNA and more than 50 other proteins, has finally finished the process, a protein is formed. However, it is always found in a  random coil shape. So what? This shape is mostly useless for its usage on organism, as we can read:

Each protein exists as an unfolded polypeptide or random coil when translated from a sequence of mRNA to a linear chain of amino acids. This polypeptide lacks any stable (long-lasting) three-dimensional structure (the left hand side of the neighbouring figure). 3

In that randomly coiled shape, the protein is highly unstable, breakable, useless for cell building, so, for proper biological use and better stability, the protein folding process must take place. This 3D-shape is known as the native state.

The correct three-dimensional structure is essential to function, although some parts of functional proteins may remain unfolded.[4] Failure to fold into native structure generally produces inactive proteins, but in some instances misfolded proteins have modified or toxic functionality. Several neurodegenerative and other diseases are believed to result from the accumulation of amyloid fibrils formed by misfolded proteins.[5] Many allergies are caused by incorrect folding of some proteins, for the immune system does not produce antibodies for certain protein structures.[6]

Another importance of the protein folding is:

 

Minimizing the number of hydrophobic side-chains exposed to water is an important driving force behind the folding process.[9] Formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds provides another important contribution to protein stability.[10] 

 

And how does the folding occurs?

 

 

The amino-acid sequence of a protein determines its native conformation.[7] A protein molecule folds spontaneously during or after biosynthesis. While these macromolecules may be regarded as “folding themselves“, the process also depends on the solvent (water or lipid bilayer),[8] the concentration of salts, the pH, the temperature, the possible presence of cofactors and of molecular chaperones.

The process of folding often begins co-translationally, so that the N-terminus of the protein begins to fold while the C-terminal portion of the protein is still beingsynthesized by the ribosome. Specialized proteins called chaperones assist in the folding of other proteins.

Although most globular proteins are able to assume their native state unassisted, chaperone-assisted folding is often necessary in the crowded intracellular environment to prevent aggregation; chaperones are also used to prevent misfolding and aggregation that may occur as a consequence of exposure to heat or other changes in the cellular environment.

There are two models of protein folding that are currently being confirmed: The first: The diffusion collision model, in which a nucleus is formed, then the secondary structure is formed, and finally these secondary structures are collided together and pack tightly together. The second: The nucleation-condensation model, in which the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein are made at the same time. Recent studies have shown that some proteins show characteristics of both of these folding models.

The essential fact of folding, however, remains that the amino acid sequence of each protein contains the information that specifies both the native structure and the pathway to attain that state. Folding is a spontaneous process independent of energy inputs from nucleoside triphosphates. The passage of the folded state is mainly guided by hydrophobic interactions, formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals forces, and it is opposed by conformational entropy.

Only after the folding process, we have an useful, stable protein, with a properly designed shape with its up to four layers, so that the molecule can perform its biological function.

But, remember, many conditions and external factors can destroy proteins, such as hydrolysis (it’s a slow, but ceaseless process, because proteins are metastable, hydrophobic) and others:

Under some conditions proteins will not fold into their biochemically functional forms. Temperatures above or below the range that cells tend to live in will cause thermally unstableproteins to unfold or “denature” (this is why boiling makes an egg white turn opaque). High concentrations of solutes, extremes of pH, mechanical forces, and the presence of chemical denaturants can do the same.

A fully denatured protein lacks both tertiary and secondary structurel. Under certain conditions some proteins can refold; however, in many cases, denaturation is irreversible.[15] Cells sometimes protect their proteins against the denaturing influence of heat with enzymes known as chaperones or heat shock proteins, which assist other proteins both in folding and in remaining folded. Some proteins never fold in cells at all except with the assistance of chaperone molecules, which either isolate individual proteins so that their folding is not interrupted by interactions with other proteins or help to unfold misfolded proteins, giving them a second chance to refold properly. This function is crucial to prevent the risk of precipitation into insoluble amorphous aggregates.

 

For a further an in-depth study about different factors capable of disrupting proteins, read the following articles:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_biosynthesis

http://creation.com/native-folds-in-polypeptide-chains-1 (a series of 6 parts)

 

To conclude our observation, it’s impossible not to be sceptic of any theoretic proposition that claims self-caused origin of proteins, because it turns out that science unveiled tons of facts that easily prevent any possibility of such proposed scenario:

 

-Absence of homochiral monomers forming in the environment;

-Necessity of genetic specific information;

-Need for an highly controlled ambient, with proper Ph level, temperature, absence of mechanical forces that may easily damage, disrupt the protein, toxins, etc; 

-Need for specific methods to protect the protein against hydrolysis, oxidation;

-Necessity of having 50 other types of protein already manufactured to help on the protein synthesis;

 

The question raises: how in the world could such a specific set of conditions be found in a prebiotic Earth? Such condition can only be barely found in a first-class laboratory, driven by qualified and experienced scientists!

You might as well enjoy watching this short video talking about protein synthesis:

 

References

1. <http://www.eb.tuebingen.mpg.de/research/departments/protein-evolution/protein-evolution.html>

2. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein>

3. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_folding>

J. G. Mendel: Why his discoveries were ignored for 35 (72) years?

From: http://www.weloennig.de/mendel02.htm

Some critical comments about the effects of Darwinism on Biological Research by Pioneers of Genetics as well as further Biologists and Historians of Biology.

Especially in the decade after the publication of Darwin’s ORIGIN (1859) the scientific world was eagerly awaiting the discovery of the laws of heredity by some experimental or other scientist(s). After two lectures in 1865, Mendel published his famous Pisum-treatise VERSUCHE ÜBER PFLANZEN-HYBRIDEN in 1866. His work was quoted at least 14 times before 1900, the year of its ‘rediscovery’. There were references in such widely distributed works as Focke’s DIE PFLANZEN-MISCHLINGE (1881), THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA (1881) and the CATALOGUE OF SCIENTIFIC PAPERS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY (1879).The treatise had been sent to the libraries of some 120 institutions including the Royal and Linnean Society of Great Britain. Moreover Mendel had 40 additional reprints at his disposal, many of which he sent to leading biologists of Europe. In fact, professor Niessl (1903 and 1906) emphasized that Mendel’s work was “well known” at his time. So in the face of the expectations just mentioned, – why was the discovery of the laws of heredity ignored by most scientists for more than 35 years, until 1900, and by the “true Darwinians” (Mayr) for another 37 years? That is 72 years in all!

The reasons have been hinted at or clearly stated by several pioneers of genetics as de Vries (1901), Bateson (1904, 1909, 1924), Johannsen (1909, 1926) as well as several historians of biology and/or biologists as Niessl (1903, 1906), Richter (1941, 1943), Stern (1962), Lönnig (1982, 1986, 1995), Callender (1988) and Bishop (1996):

All the evidence points to the main reason as follows: Mendel’s ideas on heredity and evolution were diametrically opposed to those of Darwin and his followers. Darwin believed in the inheritance of acquired characters (and tried to back up his ideas with his pangenesis hypothesis, which even Stebbins called an “unfortunate anomaly”) and, most important of course, continuous evolution. Mendel, in contrast, rejected both, the inheritance of acquired characters as well as evolution. The laws discovered by him were understood to be the laws of constant elements for a great but finite variation, not only for culture varieties but also for species in the wild (Mendel 1866, pp. 36, 46, 47). In his short treatise EXPERIMENTS IN PLANT HYBRIDIZATION mentioned above Mendel incessantly speaks of “constant characters”, “constant offspring”, “constant combinations”, “constant forms”, “constant law”, “a constant species” etc. (in such combinations the adjective “constant” occurs altogether 67 times in the German original paper). He was convinced that the laws of heredity he had discovered corroborated Gärtner’s conclusion “that species are fixed with limits beyond which they cannot change”. And as Dobzhansky aptly put it: “It is…not a paradox to say that if some one should succeed in inventing a universally applicable, static definition of species, he would cast serious doubts on the validity of the theory of evolution”.

As the Darwinians won the battle for the minds in the 19th century, there was no space left in the next decades for the acceptance of the true scientific laws of heredity discovered by Mendel and further genetical work was continued mainly by Darwin’s critics among the scientists. In agreement with de Vries, Tschermak-Seysenegg, Johannsen, Nilsson, et al., Bateson stated (1909, pp. 2/3):

“With the triumph of the evolutionary idea, curiosity as to the significance of specific differences was satisfied. The Origin was published in 1859. During the following decade, while the new views were on trial, the experimental breeders continued their work, but before 1870 the field was practically abandoned.

In all that concerns the species the next thirty years are marked by the apathy characteristic of an age of faith. Evolution became the exercising-ground of essayists. The number indeed of naturalists increased tenfold, but their activities were directed elsewhere. Darwin’s achievement so far exceeded anything that was thought possible before, that what should have been hailed as a long-expected beginning was taken for the completed work. I well remember receiving from one of the most earnest of my seniors the friendly warning that it was waste of time to study variation, for “Darwin had swept the field“” (emphasis added).

The general acceptance of Darwin’s theory of evolution and his ideas regarding variation and the inheritance of acquired characters are, in fact, the main reasons for the neglect of Mendel’s work, which – in clear opposition to Darwin – pointed to an entirely different understanding of the questions involved (see above).

However, the idea of Bishop (1996) and Di Trocchio (1991) as to Mendel that “most of the experiments described in Versuche are to be considered fictitious” or “…we are today forced by a series of anomalies and incongruities to admit that Mendel’s account of his experiments is neither truthful nor scientifically likely, and that the strategy he really followed must have been completely different” (Di Trocchio 1991, p.487 and p. 491, emphasis added) is in my opinion for several reasons untenable. (1) It does not match Mendel’s character which is distinguished by humility, extreme modesty and accuracy in handling things. (2) Too much is known about his life, work and correspondence to simply deny the existence of the work he has described (see the publications of Orel, Stern, Weiling and many others). (3) Fisher’s claims of fraud in Mendel’s data have already been disproved by several geneticists and historians of biology (Lamprecht 1968, Pilgrim 1986, Weiling 1995, Vollmann and Ruckenbauer 1997, and many other authors, see below). Working with Pisum for 7 years, I myself have found very similar data for several characters as Mendel had. In an answer to Edward, Ira Pilgrim commented (1986, p. 138): “…one had better have a good deal more evidence (such as a set of loaded dice or perhaps the information that the man is a known cheat) before accusing someone of cheating, which is what Fisher did to Mendel, and those who cite Fisher are doing now.”

On the other hand, if not only the accusations of Fisher but also those of Di Trocchio and Bishop were true, they would make Mendel’s work one of the greatest hoaxes in the whole history of science (“he counted 19,959 individuals” etc., Zirkle) – and at the same time the most ingenious fiction ever produced: an invention hitting directly upon the truth of the laws of heredity with many basic repercussions on nearly all biological and medical areas and our understanding of the living world. However, as long as there are no real foundations for these suspicions and as long as no convincing proofs can be advanced, – proofs which could stand the test of any honest court trial, the accusations fall back on those who produce them: fiction, invention and/or lies in the minds of the inventors (according to A. Kohn, Mendel belongs to the “false prophets”, M. Gardner states that “even Brother Mendel lied” (emphasis added) and V. Orel (1996, p. 207) lists further such examples).

The more I ponder and test the accusations regarding Mendel’s works, the more improbable and absurd the accusations appear to me, and the question comes to my mind: Could it be that now – after the creation position of a scientific giant like Mendel has become clear to so many observers – these accusations are the last resort of a more or less unconscious method of evolutionary philosophy to discredit Mendel and his work after all? 

Hubert Markl comments on the accusations of dishonesty against some renowned scientists (1998, p. VII): “Even if Galilei, Newton or Mendel had cheated when presenting the reasons and evidence for the natural laws they had discovered, that which they had recognized as being true, is nevertheless true, because it was found to be right in multiple tests” (see the original German sentence in the next chapter).

Although this is in principle correct, – being deeply impressed by another study of Mendel’s VERSUCHE ÜBER PFLANZEN-HYBRIDEN (1866), – concerning Mendel I think that this comment is unnecessary (as for Galilei and Newton, I do not want to give an opinion here). I presume the proof for the authenticity and precision of Mendel’s work is to be found in – among other things – the paragraph concerning the seventh of the characters studied by Mendel. He writes (p. 11) [English Version according to http://netspace.org/MendelWeb/Mendel.html]:

“With regard to this last character it must be stated that the longer of the two parental stems is usually exceeded by the hybrid, a fact which is possibly only attributable to the greater luxuriance which appears in all parts of plants when stems of very different lengths are crossed. Thus, for instance, in repeated experiments, stems of 1 ft. and 6 ft. in length yielded without exception hybrids which varied in length between 6 ft. and 7 [and] 1/2 ft.”

Thus, in this paragraph Mendel clearly describes a case of heterosis, hybrid vigour, over- or superdominance (as the phenomenon was later named from 1914 [heterosis] onward) (as for the history of the term, the genetical basis of the phenomenon and further examples, see Lönnig 1980:Heterosis bei Pisum sativumL.). Moreover, Mendel describes a second case of heterosis when continuing (pp. 11/12):

“T h e    h y b r i d    s e e d s    in the experiments with seed-coat are often more spotted, and the spots sometimes coalesce into small bluish-violet patches. The spotting also frequently appears even when it is absent as a parental character” (spaced by Mendel).

Without a theoretical basis (which is still controversial for many cases of heterosis even in our age of molecular biology) and in the absence of any experiments, it is not possible to simply ‘invent’ such unexpected phenomena of science. Rather one must “stumble over” such totally unaccustomed and unpredictable curiosities of nature to report them to an amazed audience. Dominance in all of the characters Mendel described was already astonishing enough, but the two cases of overdominance (heterosis, superdominance) represent strong evidence that Mendel had exactly done what he described. (Mendel’s explanation of the superdominant plant length found, “which is possibly only attributable to the greater luxuriance which appears in all parts of plants when stems of very different lengths are crossed” is hardly more than a tautology [here a more inclusive restatement of the phenomenon to be explained: it does not answer the question why the greater luxuriance occurs in all plant parts, of which the unusual plant length is an ingredient]. Mendel’s statement shows that he was really at a loss for any theoretical/genetical answer for the heterosis-phenomenon he had encountered and precisely described.)

One could, perhaps, object that the phenomenon of hybrid vigour had been mentioned before Mendel. However, to describe heterosis for definite characters and organs in definite sizes and quantities in definite species and culture varieties (and all that without any knowledge of the genetical and/or molecular basis of the phenomena reported), so that the experiments not only appear unlikely (in fact, unlikely!), but also prove to be entirely reproducible and true - without really having made them at all – is so improbable that we can confidently forget this objection.

Concerning Mendel’s paper, I agree on the scientific level with Mayr and Stern. Curt Stern stated (1966, p. v): “Gregor Mendel’s short treatise, ‘Experiments on Plant Hybrids’ is one of the triumphs of the human mind. It does not simply announce the discovery of important facts by new methods of observation. Rather, in an act of highest creativity, it presents these facts in a conceptual scheme which gives them general meaning. Mendel’s paper is not solely a historical document. It remains alive as a supreme example of scientific experimentation and profound penetration of data” (Stern and Sherwood 1966). Mayr concurs (1982, p. 726) that by this comment Stern has “so well” characterized Mendel’s achievement.

Nossa retina invertida: mal-projetada?

Proponentes da evolução com frequência apontam que a retina de invertebrados é uma característica que indica que esta não foi projetada (por Deus) por causa de sua alocação dentro dos olhos, aparentemente não posicionada da forma mais ideal. Eles referem ao fato de que, para a luz alcançar os fotorreceptores ela tem de passar por todo aparato neural da retina, e presumem que consequente degradação da imagem, formada à altura dos fotorreceptores  ocorre. Em linguagem biológica este arranjo da retina é dito ser invertido porque as células visuais são orientadas de maneira que seus terminais sensoriais são direcionadas para o lado oposto de onde a luz chega. É típico dos vertebrados, mas raros entre invertebrados, sendo encontrado em certos moluscos e aracnídeos.

 

Como de costume, evolucionistas amam apontar para isso como uma evidência de “bad design”, portanto, sendo aparentemente mais condizente com uma explicação naturalista, não-guiada por um Ser inteligente. Dawkins, embora admita que que essa posição da renita e toda a travessia da luz até os fotorreceptores não interfira significantemente na qualidade da imagem, escrevera o seguinte:

 

‘Qualquer engenheiro naturalmente esperaria que os fotorreceptores apontassem em direção a luz, e suas ligações (nervosas) em direção ao cérebro. Ele gargalharia diante de qualquer sugestão de colocar as fotorreceptores no sentido contrário ao da luz, e suas ligações serem posicionadas na direção da luz! Porém, é exatamente o que ocorre em todas as retinas dos vertebrados. Cada fotorreceptor é, de fato, embutido de trás para frente, com seus feixes nervosos ligados ao lado das células mais próximo da luz. Os feixes nervosos tem de atravessar a superfície da retina até um ponto onde ele “mergulha” dentro de uma abertura na retina (o chamado “ponto cego”) afim de chegarem ao nervo ótico. Isso significa que a luz, ao invés de ter garantida passagem livre direto até as fotorreceptores  tem de passar por uma floresta de feixes conectados, presumivelmente sofrendo ao menos alguma atenuação e distorção (na verdade, provavelmente não muita, de qualquer jeito, é o tipo de coisa que ofenderia qualquer engenheiro em perfeito juízo). Eu não sei a exata explicação para este estranho fato. O período relevante de sua evolução jaz no passado longínquo.’ 1

 

Primeiro, vamos revisar alguns pontos sobre a anatomia ocular:

 

 

A luz entra no olho humano pela transparente córnea, a janela frontal ocular, que age como uma poderosa lente convexa. Após passa pela pupila (a abertura no diafragma da íris) a luz e posteriormente refratada pela cristalino. Uma imagem do ambiente externo é então focalizada na retina que transforma a luz em sinais nervosos e é a mais profunda (em relação ao centro do globo ocular) das três “túnicas” do segmentos posterior do olho. As outras duas são a altamente fibrosa esclerótica (o “branco dos olhos”) encontrada na parte mais externa continuando desde a córnea e a coroide  uma camada altamente pigmentada e irrigada que se encontra entre as outras duas.

 

A retina consiste de 10 camadas, das quais a mais externa é a escura camada do epitélio pigmentar da retina (RPE em inglês) que devido ao pigmento melanina, é opaca a luz. Suas células tem finas projeções capilares em sua superfície interna chamada microvilosidades que permeiam a região e recobrem as pontas dos fotorreceptores dos segmentos externos. Daí existir um potencial ponto de fissão entre o RPE e os fotorreceptores que se torna evidente quando a retina se separe do RPE, tipo durante o resultado de uma lesão, uma condição conhecida como deslocamento de retina. Cada receptor, seja um bastonete ou cone, consiste de um segmento interior e um exterior, o primeiro contendo organelas para a fabricação dos pigmentos fotossensíveis presente no último. A camada de cones e bastonetes e todas as 8 camadas internas constituem o que é conhecido como retina neurosensorial que é virtualmente transparente à luz. Por meio de inúmeras conexões nervosas complexas dentro da retina neurosensorial, impulsos elétricos gerados pela luz ao atingirem os fotorreceptores são processados e transmitidos a camada de fibras nervosas da retina, de onde seguem pelo nervo ótico até o cérebro.

 

Em muitas espécies que necessitam de visão em ambientes de baixíssima iluminação, uma camada de material cristalino reflexivo, o tapetum (tapete em latim) é incorporado ao RPE ou a coróide. Agindo como um espelho, o tapetum reflete a luz que passa entre os fotorreceptores  daí aumentando a quantidade de luz atingindo os receptores.

 

 

O epitélio pigmentar da retina

 

Fundamental para o entendimento da retina invertida é o papel crucial do RPE. Muitas de suas essenciais funções ainda não são bem conhecidas. Cada célula do RPE está em contato intimo com as pontas dos 20 ou mais segmentos fotorreceptores exteriores cujo número chega a 130 milhões. Sem o RPE os receptores e o resto da retina neurosensorial não podem funcionar plenamente e acabariam se atrofiando.

 

O segmento externo de um receptor consiste de uma pilha de discos contendo pigmentos fotossensíveis. Estes discos são constantemente formados no segmento interno de onde eles seguem sucessivamente dos segmentos externos em direção ao RPE que recicla seus componentes químicos pelo processo de fagocitose (Grego:φάγω (phagō) = comer).

 

O RPE armazena vitamina A, um precursor dos pigmentos fotossensíveis  e em seguida participa de suas regenerações. Existem quatro fotopigmentos que se desbotam sob exposição à luz: rodopsina (encontrada em bastonetes, para visão noturna) e mais três tipos um para cada tipo de cone (um cone para cada cor primária). Ele sintetiza glicosaminoglicanas para o interfotorreceptor matriz, ou seja, o material interno que separa os receptores.

 

Além de oxigênio, o RPE seletivamente transporta nutrientes da coroide para suprir as três camadas externas da retina e remove os produtos residuais metabólicos dos receptores para serem varridos para circulação coroidal. Por meio de de seletivo bombeamento de metabólitos e a presença de estreitas junções intercelulares, o RPE age como uma barreira, prevenindo o acesso de resíduos químicos maiores ou nocivos ao tecido retinal, com isso contribuindo com a constante manutenção de um ambiente retinal estável e otimizado.

 

O RPE possui complexos mecanismos para lidar com molécula tóxicas e radicais livres produzidos pela ação da luz. Enzimas especializadas superóxido dismutases, catalases e peroxidases estão presentes para catalizar a quebra de potencialmente danosas moléculas como superóxido e o peróxido de hidrogênio. Antioxidantes tipo o atocoferol (vitamina E) e ácido ascórbico (vitamina C) estão presentes para reduzir os danos da oxidação.

 

Nossos receptores continuamente sintetizam novos discos com seus respectivos pigmentos fotossensíveis  reciclando materiais dos discos usados que foram dantes digeridos pelo RPE. Isto levanta a questão: ‘Porque existe esse tão complicado processo?’ A resposta pode estar no fato desse processo ser um exemplo de renovação biológica, pelo qual tecidos expostos a substâncias tóxicas, radiação, trauma físico, etc, podem sobreviver. Sem auto-renovação, tecidos como a pele, o revestimento do intestino, células sanguíneas e todo o resto iriam rapidamente acumular defeitos fatais. Do mesmo jeito, pela continua substituição dos discos os fotorreceptores superam o incessante processo de desintegração acelerado por agentes tóxicos, em particular, por luzes de comprimento de ondas curtas.

 

O dissipador térmico coroidal

 

 

Têm sido observado que o dano aos receptores de modelos experimentais está fortemente relacionado com a temperatura, e outros estudos confirmam que calor potencializa lesões fotoquímicas. Qualquer sistema projetado para resistir ao último deve também proteger contra o primeiro. Em 1980, um artigo foi publicado explicando pela primeira vez algo já conhecido sobre a coroide  2 Isto é, sua altíssima taxa de fluxo sanguíneo que excede em léguas a demanda nutricional da retina, apesar desta ser altamente ativa, metabolicamente, como já indicado.

 

Os vasos capilares coroidais (coriocapilares) formam um rico emaranhado na parte externa do RPE, predominantemente em sua área central, e separado deste apenas por uma fina membrana (membrana de Bruch). A absorção de luz excessiva pelo RPE produz calor na parte externa da retina que deve ser dissipado, afim de evitar danos pelo excesso de aquecimento ao delicado e complexo aparato biológico, e também a suas circunvizinhanças.

 

Os autores deste estudo contundentemente demonstram uma função essencial da coróide seu fluxo torrencial sanguíneo e sua proximidade ao RPE, serve para funcionar como dissipador de calor e resfriador. Ainda mais fascinante são os resultados de estudos posteriores pelos mesmos autores indicando que existem reflexos nervosos centrais (pelo cérebro) mediados pela luz que regulam o fluxo sanguíneo coroidal, aumentando o fluxo sanguíneo conforme a iluminação aumenta. Ambos RPE e coróide tem de estar localizados na parte externa da retina neurosensorial; disso podemos concluir que existem sólidas razões para a configuração invertida da retina de humanos e outros vertebrados.

 

A fóvea

 

Embora a retina neurosensorial seja virtualmente transparente excetuando-se em seus finíssimos vasos sanguíneos, existe um refinamento adicional de sua estrutura em sua região central chamada de mácula lútea. A retina e o córtex cerebral ocipital (chamado de córtex visual), para o qual a retina transmite informações visuais, é tão organizado que o VA é máximo no eixo visual. O eixo visual passa pela fovéola que forma o “piso” de uma fenda circular com uma parede declinada, chamado de fóvea (do latim= fenda, fossa) no centro da mácula. Longe da fóvea o VA diminui progressivamente em direção a periferia da retina. Daí os fotorreceptores de cor- os cones que detectam vermelho, verde e possivelmente azul- tem a maior densidade de 150.000 por mm² na fovéola  que mede apenas 300-330 µm de extensão.

 

O pigmento xantofila

 

O sistema ótico do olho humano é projetado de tal maneira que a luz ambiente tende a atingir com toda intensidade a área macular da retina, e com muito menos intensidade a periferia desta. É significante que não apenas a quantidade de melanina é mais abundante na região macular devido a suas células RPE serem maiores e mais numerosas por milimetro quadrado do que em qualquer outro lugar, mas também no centro da retina encontra-se o pigmento xantofila (Grego: ξάνθος- xanthos, amarelo). Nesta região, xantofila permeia todas as camadas da retina neurosensorial entre suas duas membranas e é concentrada nas células retinais, ambos os neurônios e células dos tecido que os sustenta. Atenção tem sido dada recentemente a presença de uma coleção de tecidos celulares de suporte chamada de tecidos de Muller que se encontram na superfície da fóvea e formam um cone cuja ponta pluga na depressão foveolar.

Xantofila é um carotenoide quimicamente ligado a vitamina A, cujo ápice do espectro de absorção chega a 460 nm e varia de 480 nm a 390 nm. Ela ajuda a proteger a retina neurosensorial ao absorver maior parte das ondas mais curtas da luz visível, ou seja, o espectro azul e violeta, potencialmente mais danosos.

 

 

O ponto cego

 

Devido a disposição invertida da retina, os axônios (fibras nervosas) que transmitem dados ao cérebro passam por baixo da superfície interna da retina e convergem em um pequeno ponto que é a “cabeça” do nervo ótico, daí, saindo para o cérebro. A cabeça do nervo ótico não possui receptores de luz, sendo portanto cega, causando um pequeno ponto cego no campo de visão. Sem surpresa, evolucionistas criticaram isso. Williams coloca o seguinte:

 

‘Nosso ponto cego da retina raramente causa alguma dificuldade, mas raramente não quer dizer nunca. Quando por um momento cubro um olho para repelir um inseto, um evento importante pode estar focalizado no ponto cego do outro.’ 3

 

Além disso, o problema tem de ser visto em perspectiva: o ponto cego é encontra-se a 15° do centro do eixo visual (a 3.7 mm da fovéola  e é minúsculo em relação ao campo de visão do olho, ocupando menos de 0.25% deste. Como mencionado acima, quanto mais longe da fovéola um ponto na retina está, menor será seu VA e sua sensibilidade. A retina ao redor da cabeça do nervo ótico, possui um VA apenas 15% igual ao da fovéola  Podemos inferir com segurança que o risco em teoria, previsto por Williams decorrente do ponto cego em uma pessoa de um olho só, é insignificante; e, em concordância com isso, é considerado seguro para uma pessoa de um olho só dirigir um carro privado, ou seja, para fins não profissionais.’

 

Como os dois campos visuais se sobrepõem em grande parte, o ponto cego de um olho é coberto pelo campo visual do outro. É verdade que a oclusão ou perda de um dos olhos é uma desvantagem, mas isso não é por causa do ponto cego do olho que notamos pelas razões expostas acima.

 

Olhos dos invertebrados

 

Algumas alegações de que a retina não-invertida de cefalópodes, tais como lulas e polvos, são mais eficientes do que a retina invertida encontrada em vertebrados. Mas isso pressupõe que a retina invertida é ineficiente, em primeiro lugar, e já vimos que não é o caso.

 

Além disso, eles nunca demonstraram que os cefalópodes realmente enxergam melhor. Pelo contrário, seus olhos apenas ‘se aproximam a alguns dos olhos de vertebrados inferiores em termos de eficiência’ e são provavelmente cegos de cores (só enxergam preto e branco). Além disso, a retina de cefalópodes, além de ser “convertida”, é muito mais simples do que a retina “invertida” de vertebrados; como Budelmann afirma, ‘A estrutura da retina [de cefalópodes] é muito mais simples do que do olho dos vertebrados, com apenas dois componentes neurais, células receptoras e fibras eferentes.’ É uma estrutura ondulante com ‘longas células fotorreceptoras cilíndricas com omatídeos consistindo de microvilosidades’, portanto os olhos de moluscos tem sido descrito como um “olho composto com lentes simples”. Finalmente, eles vivem em regiões com muito menos intensidade de luz do que a maioria dos vertebrados, o que contribui para demonstrar que olhos de cefalópodes não precisam ser tão complexos como é costumeiramente afirmado.

Apesar dos esforços de proponentes da evolução, a retina invertida não é evidência de “bad design”; pelo contrário, mesmo sua “fiação ao contrário” mostrar ser um sinal de criação planejada, para atender as demandas de cada ser vivo, de acordo com seu respectivo habitat.

 

(Do artigo: Is our ‘inverted’ retina really ‘bad design’?-Creation Ministries)

 

 

Referências

  •   Duke-Elder, S., System of Ophthalmology, Henry Kimpton, London, vol. 1, p. 147, 1958. 

  • Dawkins, R., The Blind Watchmaker: Why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design. W.W. Norton and Company, New York, p. 93, 1986. 

  • Duke-Elder, Ref. 1, pp. 608–609. 

  • Hogan, M.J., Alvarado, J.A., Weddell, J.E., The Retina. In Histology of the Human Eye, pp. 393–522, 1971. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia. As cited in Tasman W., Jaeger E.A. (eds), Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology, Lippincott–Raven, New York, vol. 1, ch. 21, 1998. 

  • Zinn, K.M., Benjamin-Henkind, J., Anatomy of the human retinal pigment epithelium, 1979. In Zinn, K.M., Marmot, M.F. (eds.), The Retinal Pigment Epithelium, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 3–31. As cited in Tasman W., Jaeger E.A. (eds.), 

  • The photoreceptors are of two types: the rods which number about 125 million and the cones about 6.5 million. 

  • LaVail, M.M., Outer segment disc shedding and phagocytosis in the outer retina, Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. UK 103:397, 1983.

  • Steinberg, R.H., Research update: report from a workshop on cell biology of retinal detachment,Exp. Eye Res. 43:696–706, 1986. 

  • Törnquist, P., Alm, A., Bill, A., Permeability of ocular vessels and transport across the blood-retinal barrier, Eye 4: 303–309, 1990. 

  • Grierson, I., Hiscott, P., Hogg, P., Robey, H., Mazure, A., Larkin, G., Development, repair and regeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium, Eye 8: 255–262, 1994. 

  • Kennon Guerry, R., Ham, W.T., Mueller, H.A. Light toxicity in the posterior segment, 1998. In Tasman W., Jaeger E.A. (eds.), Clinical Ophthalmology, Lippincott-Raven, New York, vol. 3, ch. 37. 

  • Young, R.W., The Bowman Lecture: Biological renewal: Applications to the eye, Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. UK 102:42–67, 1982. 

  • Geeraets, W.J., Williams, R.C., Chan, G., Ham, W.T., Guerry, D., Schmidt, F.H., The loss of light energy in retina and choroid, Arch. Ophthalmol. 64:158, 1960. As cited by Parver, L.M. et al.,

  • Photon energy (E) is inversely proportional to wavelength (λ): E = hc/λ, where h is Planck’s Constant and c is the speed of light in a vacuum. 

  • Spectroscopic terms like ‘singlet’, ‘doublet’, ‘triplet’ etc. refer to the number of possible orientations of the total electronic spin of the molecule in a magnetic field. The ground (lowest energy) state of the O2 molecule is a triplet state (3Σg–) with two unpaired electrons. But when excited by a photon, it moves into a higher energy (thus more reactive) singlet state (1Δg) with no unpaired electrons. 

  • Noell, W.K., Walker, V.S., Kang B.S. et al., Retinal damage by light in rats, Invest. Ophthalmol. 5:450, 1966.

  • Friedman, E., Kuwubara, T., The retinal pigment epithelium: IV. The damaging effects of radiant energy, Arch. Ophthalmol. 80:265–279, 1968. 

  • Parver, L.M., Auker, C., Carpenter, D.O., Choroidal blood flow as a heat dissipating mechanism in the macula, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89:641–646, 1980. 

  • Parver, L.M., Auker, C., Carpenter, D.O., Choroidal blood flow: III. Reflexive control in the human, Arch. Ophthalmol. 101:1604, 1983.

  • Parver, L.M., Temperature modulating action of choroidal blood flow, Eye 5:181, 1991. 

  • Wieland, C.Seeing back to front: Are evolutionists right when they say our eyes are wired the wrong way? Creation 18(2):38–40, 1996. 

  • Anon., An eye for creation: an interview with eye disease researcher Dr G. Marshall, University of Glasgow, Scotland , Creation 18(4):19–21, 1996. 

  • The cerebral cortex is the grey cellular mantle (1–4 mm thick) forming the entire surface of the cerebral hemisphere of mammals. In man and the primates, part of the occipital cortex (at the posterior pole of each hemisphere) is specialised to receive signals from the two retinas and not until this level is reached by retinal signals is there conscious visual perception. The central 1.5 mm of the retina (the macula) has disproportionate representation in the visual cortex, amounting to about half of its area. 

  • The cones for blue are much less numerous than those for red and for green and it is now thought that they may not be present in the foveola. 

  • Osterberg, G., Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina, Acta Ophthalmol. (suppl.) 6:1, 1935. As cited in Tasman W., Jaeger E.A. (eds), Ref. 4, vol. 1, ch. 21.

  • The foveola subtends an angle of about 20 minutes of arc at the nodal point of the eye while the normal resolving power of the eye or the angle subtended by the minimum perceivable separation of two points is 1 minute of arc. 

  • Visual signals arising in the receptors are relayed in the retina first via the bipolar cells in the inner nuclear layer and then via the ganglion cells whose axons or nerve fibres form the nerve fibre layer of the retina. 

  • Curio, C.A., Allen, K.A., Topography of ganglion cells in human retina, J. Comp. Neurol. 300:5, 1990. As cited in Tasman W., Jaeger E.A. (eds), Ref. 4, vol. 1, ch. 19. 

  • Schein, S.J., Anatomy of macaque fovea and spatial densities of neurons in foveal representation, J. Comp. Neurol. 269:479, 1988. Cited in: Tasman W., Jaeger E.A. (eds), ref. 4, vol. 1, ch. 19. 

  • Streeten, B.W., Development of the human retinal pigment epithelium and the posterior segment, Arch. Ophthalmol. 81:383–394, 1969. 

  • Identifying the precise location of xanthophyll, i.e. the layers and structures in which it is present within the neurosensory retina has proved difficult for investigators but there is a consensus for what is given here.

  • Gass, J.D.M., Müller Cell Cone, an Overlooked Part of the Anatomy of the Fovea Centralis, Arch Ophthalmol. 117:821–823, 1999. 

  • This graph is based on information from various sources as indicated by the references. Some absorption curves for melanin show an apparent fall-off at the short wavelength end of the light spectrum but this is caused by reduced transmission of short wavelength radiation by the ocular media (the cornea and more so the crystalline lens), rather than by a decrease in absorption by melanin granules. 

  • Sabates, F.N., Applied laser optics: Techniques for retinal laser surgery, 1997. In Tasman W., Jaeger E.A. (eds), 1997. Clinical Ophthalmology, Lippincott-Raven, New York, vol. 1, ch. 69A.

  • Nussbaum, J.J., Pruett, R.C., Delori, F.C., Historic perspectives. Macular yellow pigment. The first 200 years, Retina 1:296–310, 1981. 

  • Duke-Elder, S. (ed), Ref. 1, vol. 2, p. 264, 1961.

  • The degree of scattering is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength. 

  • Ham, W.T. Jr., Mueller, H.A., Ruffolo, J.J. Jr. et al., Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey, Am. J. Ophthalmol.93:299, 1982. [The term aphakia means absence of the lens in the eye. The eyes of monkeys were subjected to the experiments after their lenses had been removed.] 

  • Boettner, E.A., Wolter, J.R., Transmission of the ocular media, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci 1:776, 1962. Cited in: Tasman W., Jaeger E.A. (eds), Ref. 11, vol. 5, ch. 55. 

  • The eyes are further shielded from excessive exposure to light and UVR by anatomical features: the normal horizontal orientation of the eyes when in the upright posture, the eyebrows (particularly for those with deep-set eyes), the nose and the cheeks. But any natural defence system can be overwhelmed and so it is sensible when necessary (just as it is to wear extra clothing in cold weather) to wear or use extra protection against UVR and blue light; all the more is this so with the depletion of our ozone layer. 

  • Williams, G.C., Natural Selection: Domains, Levels and Challenges, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 72–73, 1992. 

  • Traquair, H.M., An Introduction to Clinical Perimetry, The C V Mosby Co., St Louis, 1938.

  • Wertheim, Z., Psychol. Physiol. Sinnes. 7:172, 1894. Cited in: Duke-Elder, S. (ed.), Ref. 1, vol. 4, p. 611, 1968. 

  • The reduction of overall visual field with the loss or occlusion of one eye amounts to 20–25% with the seeing eye looking straight ahead, mainly on account of the nose. The field of each eye is normally restricted by the facial contours mentioned in endnote 40. The field loss caused by the nose is largely recovered if the subject turns the head a little towards the blind side; this is often done unconsciously by a one-eyed person when looking intently. Return to text.

  • Diamond, J., Voyage of the Overloaded Ark, Discover, June, pp. 82–92, 1985.

  • Mollusks, Encyclopædia Britannica 24:296-322, 15th ed., 1992; quote on p. 321.

  • Hanlon, R.T., and Messenger, J.B., Cephalopod Behaviour, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, p. 19, 1996.

  • Budelmann, B.U., Cephalopod sense organs, nerves and brain, 1994. In Pörtner, H.O., O’Dor, R.J. and Macmillan, D.L., ed., Physiology of cephalopod molluscs: lifestyle and performance adaptations, Gordon and Breach, Basel, Switzerland, p. 15, 1994.

  • Sensory Reception, Encyclopædia Britannica 27:114–221, 15th ed., 1992; quote on p. 147.

Reaping the ‘fruits’ of atheism / secularism

Dissenters of the Christianity and bible often state that Christian dogma is an immoral, outdated, archaic and even evil thing for society… Well, in many Western countries Christianity is fading away, whereas, at the same pace, the secularism and antitheist ideologies skyrockets. So, the question arises: what are the results of the “boom” in these movements? Which fruits are being harvested now? I think it’s better you read it by yourself:

 

 

Dutch Court Says Pedophilia Advocacy Group Martijn Can Continue

Apr 5, 2013

Source: AngelQueen website

Par7194961

Marthijn Uitenboogaard, right, of “Vereniging Martijn,” and Dutch writer Anton Dautzenberg, a club member,at a press conference March 2, 2012. (Phil Nijhuis/AFP/Getty)

Judges in the Netherlands have ruled that an organization that wants to legalize pedophilia can continue to exist. Cintia Taylor speaks with the group’s most recent leader.

When Marthijn Uittenbogaard’s lawyer contacted him with the news that his pro-pedophilia group could continue to exist, he took to Twitter: “Fortunately, there are still wise judges,” he wrote. Uittenbogaard was the last leader of Martijn, a foundation established in 1982 to promote the legalization of consensual sex between adults and children in The Netherlands.

The group has been fighting a legal battle with the country’s Public Prosecution Service which has been seeking its dismantling since 2010. Last year a court ruled that Martijn be banned on charges that it glorified sexual relations between adults and children. But the appeals court in the northern town of Leeuwarden has now overturned that decision, claiming that although the work of the organization is contradictory to public order, there is no evidence leading to “a threat of disrupting society.”

Uittenbogaard, 40, sees this as a victory for freedom of expression. He thinks society can be very overprotective. “A child can see a lot of violence on television, on every cartoon there’s violence, on movies people get killed,” he explains, “But when Janet Jackson’s breast is shown at the Super Bowl people say: ‘Oh children are watching this.’ Nakedness and everything concerning sexuality is a taboo and violence is the norm. And I think that should be the other way around.” He further believes “almost everyone has pedophile feelings in them. Only the percentage is different, some have more than others.”

According to Uittenborgaard, pedophilia is not only about sex. He is, in fact, against penetration when it comes to small children, but he thinks that those above 12 years old are wise enough to decide whether they want to have intercourse with an adult. But child psychologist Sanderijn van der Doef disagrees. She admits children are aware of their sexuality at an early age, but “they can’t understand the consequences of their decisions, including those related to their sexuality.”

At the height of its activities, Martijn had 650 members, published a quarterly magazine and hosted a website featuring chat rooms, forums, and news archives on pedophilia-related stories.

In 2007 the organization came under fire after a member published on its website photos of children of the royal family, including of the crown prince’s daughter, princess Amalia. Then in 2011, former leader Ad van der Berg was sentenced to four years in prison for possession of child pornography, some 157,500 photos and videos, including 12,000 in which he could be seen posing.In aWikipedia article we find a list of pro-pedophilia organizations (several are, thankfully,  now defunct) such as:

Australia:

  • Australian Man/Boy Love Association (AMBLA).[1]
  • Australian Paedophile Support Group (APSG). Founded in 1980 or 1983 according to other sources. It was succeeded by the Boy Lovers and Zucchini Eaters (BLAZE), another law-abiding group dismantled by police.[2]

Belgium

  • Dokumentatieidients Pedofilie (DSAP).[3] Defunct?
  • Centre de Recherche et d’Information sur l’Enfance et la Sexualité (CRIES). 1982-1986. Founded by Philippe Charpentier. The group published the magazineL’Espoir.[4]
  • Groupe d’Étude sur la Pédophilie. Founded in 1982 by the association gay Infor Homosexualitaté. In 1982 it becomes to CRIES.[19]

Denmark

Norway

  • Norwegian Pedophile Group (NAFP).

Canada

  • Coalition Pédophile Quebecois.[1]

United Kingdom

  • Paedophile Action for Liberation (PAL). 1974-?[3] Defunct.
  • Paedophile Information Exchange (PIE). 1974-1984. One of the most important pedophile associations in Europe. It was affiliated to the National Council for Civil Liberties, now known as Liberty, between 1978 and 1983, year in wich it was expelled.[16] It published the magazinesMagpieUnderstanding Paedophilia and Childhood Rights.[3][17]

USA

Germany

  • AG-Pädo. Founded in 1991 by the gay association Arbeitsgruppe des Bundesverbandes Homosexualität (BVH).[20][1] Active.

 

Quite staggering, to say the least… “Coincidentally”, most groups have been founded during the 70′s and in the following decades, certainly after the rise of atheism in many societies, and the decline of maintenance of traditional values, mostly built on Christian bases. These info presented above are just the tip of iceberg; the more we look into godless/secular societies, the more we perceive the social damage caused by this increasing trend, as we can get a fair hint by reading the following links:

 

Depression/Mental illness/Suicide:

 

Swedish government pays the double for depression (“As sick leave and early retirement brought about by depression have become more common, costs have shot up from 16.1 to 32.9 billion kronor, according to a new study- article from 2007″);

Sweden- Use of anti-depressants slightly reduces suicide rate (“In 1995 1,783 Swedes took their own lives. Ten years later the figure had declined to 1,451, a drop of 18 percent”);

Young Swedes need more mental health help (“One in four 16- to 18-year-olds in Sweden suffers from mental health issues”; “The Swedish economy loses about €8 billion ($10.4 billion) annually, or 2.8 percent of GDP, due to lost productivity and spending on healthcare and social services”);

Swedish teens ‘more depressed than ever’ (“Looking at the 18 to 14 age bracket, the report showed that young adults are increasingly depressed, suffering from anxiety and falling prey to addiction. They are also spending more time in psychiatric institutions, with the increase in young adults receiving institutional care increasing far more rapidly than in any other segment of the population.”)

Patient suicides on the rise in Sweden: report (“In 2007, 468 suicides were reported. Last year, that number had jumped to 599. Most cases come from psychiatric clinics, but reports from both primary and geriatric care also occurred regularly, according to statistics”- 2011)

Sweden-Depression “behind one in three physical ailments” (“One in three people seeking medical care for physical ailments might well be suffering from depression, according to Professor Hallman”)

Norway-Depression hits half the population;

Denmark- Survey: More than one in four high school students suffers from depression (“Twelve percent of the survey respondents suffer from an actual depression, while 14 percent showed signs of depression. Overall, 26.7 percent of the students gave responses that indicated they should seek medical advice for a possible depression”)

England: Third of young unemployed ‘rarely leave house’ (“The poll examined views of some 1,000 youngsters aged 16-24 across the UK.” “It reveals that many feel isolated and are lacking in confidence – 40% feel they are not part of society, 36% believe they will never have a chance of getting a job. One third have suffered depression, 37% rarely go outside the house and 39% suffer from stress.”)

Hikikomori: Why are so many Japanese men refusing to leave their rooms? (“As many as a million young people in Japan are thought to remain holed up in their homes – sometimes for decades at a time.” “Symptoms vary between patients. For some, violent outbursts alternate with infantile behaviour such as pawing at the mother’s body. Other patients might be obsessive, paranoid and depressed.”)

UK: Gang violence cause of high levels of mental disorders (“Young men in gangs are significantly more likely to suffer from a mental disorder and need psychiatric help than other young men, says a UK study. It surveyed 108 gang members and found that half had an anxiety disorder, more than 85% a personality disorder and 25% screened positive for psychosis.”)

France, the world’s most depressed nation?

Finland- Man shoots friend and himself in Akaa, Pirkanmaa

Suicide hit all-time high in Singapore in 2012 (“A 29% increase from the 2011 total number. It boosted by 80% among 20-29 years old people”)

High developed nations and Suicide: A Fresh Perspective (“Why do Swedes and citizens of other relatively equal nations take their lives at a higher rate than residents of more unequal nations? Four investigators have tapped a wealth of newly available data to help make sense out of a paradox that has dogged the research on economic disparities for decades.”)

Russia has second worst suicide rate in the world (“The data suggest that “in the years between 1990 and 2010 about 800,000 Russians killed themselves, which is close to a million – a whole city,””)

Russia: a teenage suicide epidemic?

Russia’s child, teenage suicide rates highest in Europe (” Over the past few years the number of minors who have taken their own lives or made such attempts has grown by 35-37 percent,””According to the agency the country sees 19–20 suicides per 100,000 teenagers a year, which is thrice the world average. For instance, in 2009 1,379 young men and 369 young women aged 15 to 19 committed suicide (the watchdog has not yet published more recent statistics). Per one suicide there are up to two hundred failed suicide attempts.”)

Netherlands- More people commit suicide by train (“In 2011, 215 people committed suicide by throwing themselves in front of a train and 26 people tried to do so, according to new transport ministry figures. Despite efforts to reduce access to the railways and increase surveillance near popular suicide spots, the number of deaths has gone up by 31% over the past eight years, the figures show”)

Netherlands- Suicide rate rises slightly (“In total, 1,647 people committed suicide in the Netherlands last year, up marginally on 2010″)

Suicide is the second biggest cause of deaths among youth (Suicide is the 3rd major cause of death among Brazilian teens- in Portuguese)

Suicide increases 50% in Spain (in Spanish)

France- Child suicide under-estimated: report (“Around 40 suicides among children aged less than 12 are reported each year. In May, an 11-year-old boy hanged himself with his T-shirt in his school in Arles after he had been sent out of the classroom.””The author of the report, psychiatrist Boris Cyrulnik, believes that many deaths reported as accidental should also be considered as suicides””Other factors playing a role are related to the child’s experiences, including abandonment (which plays a role in 31 percent of suicides), physical abuse (21 percent), sexual abuse (8 percent) and incest (5 percent).”)

Germany -Police find body lying ‘among 50 snakes’

Germany- Man dies after setting self on fire at Reichstag (“A 32-year-old man died after stabbing himself and then setting himself on fire in front of the Reichstag in Berlin early Saturday afternoon.”)

Germany- Experts puzzled by Bavaria’s suicide rate (“Despite its low unemployment and high average income, Bavaria recorded a suicide rate of 12.9 deaths per 100,000 people in 2009, which was well above the national average of 10.6 per 100,000, daily Süddeutsche Zeitung reported.” “Some 1,749 people killed themselves in the state that year and 9,616 took their own lives across the whole country. This was more than double the number that died in road accidents.”)

Switzerland ‘one of Europe’s suicide capitals’ (“Between 15,000 and 25,000 people attempt to kill themselves in Switzerland every year, according to a new survey, confirming Switzerland’s place as one of the suicide capitals of Europe.”)

 

Alcoholism/illegal drug addiction:

 

UK- Drugs, alcohol, cigarettes (The UK has one of the biggest binge drinking problems in Europe. That’s according to a study of 15 and 16 year olds in 35 European countries. UK teens drink more in one session than teens in any other European country apart from the Isle of Man and possibly Demark. The report describes binge drinking in the UK as “serious and chronic””)

Norway- Use LSD to combat alcoholism: experts (Great….)

Use of ‘designer drugs’ on the rise in Germany (“Synthetic “designer drugs,” with names such as Extreme Summer, Fly Cherry or Manga XXL are increasingly finding users in Germany, especially among young men, a new government report says.”)

Netherlands- The number of complaints about drugs nuisance almost quadrupled to 619 in Maastricht in May

Denmark- Drug use soars (“There are an estimated 33.000 drug addicts (problem drug users) in a country with a population of 5 million. The government plans to introduce more involuntary treatment to stop this disturbing trend.”)

Drugs in France (“Few sound figures are available on the prevalence of drug use in France. Estimates range from 50,000 to several million drug users (Padieu, 1994)”)

Drug addiction in Belgium

Number of Drug Addicts in Russia Nears 9 Million

HEROIN USE, ABUSE, AND ADDICTION IN CHINA

Japan, Land Of The Rising Meth

Drug use in England and Wales

CANADIAN DRUG CRISIS (“47,000 Canadian deaths are linked to substance abuse annually”)

Drug use in six Latin American countries in focus

We have to find new solutions to Latin America’s drugs nightmare

Illegal Drug Use in Mexico

Drug addiction explodes in Mexico (“According to a recent government study, the number of addicts has nearly doubled from 158,000 to 307,000 in the past six years”)

 

Child/Elderly abuse/violence:

 

Sweden- Police warn of rogue cops swindling elderly (“Fraudsters who impersonate police officers are using increasingly sophisticated techniques in Sweden to rob the elderly in their homes, with reports of such incidents on the rise.”)

Maltreatment reports increasing in Swedish geriatric care (“Bed sores, humiliating treatment and incorrect drug dosages. Many are now reporting maltreatment of elderly to the National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen), and cases are increasing in several parts of the country, according to a survey conducted by news agency TT.”)

Denmark- Man admits burning daughters to death (“The 40 year-old Danish father accused of drugging his two daughters and then burning them to death in his car has confessed his guilt in a Potsdam, Germany court “)

Vienna children’s home ‘saw decades of abuse, rapes’ (“Children were physically and mentally abused for decades at a former Austrian children’s home and city authorities knew about it but did nothing”)

There Are 747,000 Registered Sex Offenders In The United States (“According to the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, there are 747,408 registered sex offenders in the United States right now. “)

France- Boat school founder jailed for raping pupils (“The founder of a French alternative school that took students on boat trips on the high seas was sentenced Friday to 12 years in prison for the rape and sexual abuse of six children.”)

France- Father charged with rape of ‘disabled’ daughters (“A French father of five has been charged with raping three of his daughters, one as young as 15. The shocking development comes a month after the family were found confined to their filthy council house for the last year.”)

 French dad raped daughters and fathered baby (“A man was sentenced to five years in prison for the rape of his two daughters, with one of whom he had a child, in a court in Amiens last Friday.”)

Netherlands- Rape reports reach 24 a week (“There were 1,297 reports of rape made to Dutch police last year, according to the latest AD crime monitor, due to be published on Saturday. This is the equivalent of 24 a week, but the number of actual rapes is likely to be far higher, the paper says. Earlier research showed as few as one in eight women report rape and sex attacks to the police. The AD monitor shows police also investigated 1,896 reports of sexual assault and 490 cases of suspected incest. The total number of sex crime reports is down on 2011.”)

Thailand to extradite Swiss child molester (“A 56-year-old man from St Gallen who abused his daughter and her friend over a period of years is to be extradited from Thailand.”)

Switzerland Paedophile bus driver jailed for new sex crimes  (“Questions are being raised in Ticino about how a convicted paedophile, sentenced on Thursday to five years in jail for re-offending with new sex crimes against small girls, managed to get hired as the driver of a bus carrying young children.”)

Netherlands- Sex case swim teacher charged with rape (“The swimming teacher suspected of abusing dozens of girls is also facing rape charges, the Volkskrant reports on Friday. Benno L is said to have raped a young girl with Downs syndrome during a swimming lesson – a claim which is now included in the charge sheet, the paper says.”)

Netherlands- Reported sex crimes down by one-third (“Last year, there were almost 1,500 reports of rape and 2,100 reports of sexual assault, down almost one-third on 2005. Between 1985 and 2002, the number of reports of rape rose 40%. “)

Germany- Six kids collapse in sex education class  (“There was some distress in the classroom as a number of children collapsed after they were asked to colour in pictures of sexual organs while learning about human reproduction.”)

Germany- Castration only way out of prison for child abuser (“A German judge told a convicted child sex abuser who attacked boys aged between eight months and four years old, he would never be released unless he underwent chemical castration. “)

Norway- Man arrested for rape of elderly women (“A 35-year-old Romanian man has been arrested in Paris in connection with the brutal assault and rape of two elderly women in the Oslo area.”)

Norway- Teen to face trial for rape and murder of Hilda, 98 (“A 19-year-old man has been charged with the rape and murder of 98-year-old Hilda Feste, who was found bludgeoned to death in her home in Os in western Norway in January.”)

UK- ‘Prolific’ child rapist from Downham sentenced to 28 years in prison (“Leslie Burrell, aged 62, of Whitefoot Lane, was found guilty of 39 counts of child abuse including rape, sexual activity with a child and taking indecent photographs of a child. His victims, 11 boys and a girl, were abused between 1972 and 2007.”)

Norway- Police in nationwide child-porn raids

Netherlands- Slight rise in elderly abuse cases, family members usually to blame (“In total, there were 1,027 abuse reports. In 35% of cases a child or grandchild was the abuser but in a quarter of cases it was another family member. Partners and ex-partners are also responsible for around a quarter of cases”)

Parents in Norway jailed for incest (“A Norwegian court Thursday sentenced a couple to 17 years in prison for violence, rape and incestuous relations with their three sons, calling it the country’s worst sexual abuse case.”)

Database for UK and Eire paedophiles/child abusers  (“MORE than 400 children are sexually abused every week in Britain — one every 20 MINUTES, a shock investigation has revealed The 43 police forces in England and Wales recorded 23,097 child sex offences in 2011. That included rape, incest, child prostitution and pornography.”)

 

Racism:

 

The Hunger Games hit by racism row as movie fans tweet vile slurs over casting of black teen actress as heroine Rue

Out of 120 police officers found guilty of racism… just one is sacked

Steep rise in racism and intolerance in France (“Racist, anti-Semitic and Islamophobic acts and threats have risen steeply in France, according to a report published on Thursday by the country’s racism watchdog. Levels of intolerance in the country were a real “concern”, the watchdog concluded.”)

Google’s ‘Jew’ suggestion leads to judge order

Anti-Semitic attacks soar by 82% in France

Germany- Neo-Nazi terror gang trauma still raw a year on (“A year after the neo-Nazi terrorist cell believed to be responsible for nine racial murders and the killing of a police woman was revealed, a leading German official admitted trust in the authorities was seriously damaged. “)

Germany- Frankfurt cops in focus after ‘racist attack’ (“Growing public outrage in Frankfurt over an alleged attack by four police officers which left a black man unconscious and suffering concussion has prompted a debate in the state parliament over claims of racism in the police force. “)

Germany- Nazi salutes aimed at Israeli footballer (“The 24-year-old was subjected to a verbal racist attack while training with his German league club on Sunday, when a group of between five and 10 fans in a crowd of at least 100 chanted anti-Semitic slogans.”)

Teachers ‘need help to fight youth extremism (“Attempts to prevent young Germans from getting into right-wing extremism are failing because of poor coordination and sporadic financing say experts.”)

German police raid Nazi ‘Werewolf’ lairs (“Police launched raids in Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland Wednesday against six suspected members of a far-right “Werewolf” cell modelled on late-World War II plans for a Nazi guerrilla resistance.”)

Neo-Nazi killings, apathy shock German minorities (“Revelations a neo-Nazi gang was able to commit racist murders unhindered for a decade – and Germany’s seeming indifference to the crimes – has shaken the country’s minority communities.”)

Sweden- Neo-Nazi trio threatens ex-party leader Sahlin (“Three men from the neo-Nazi Party of the Swedes (Svenskarnas Parti) followed and threatened former Social Democrat leader Mona Sahlin in Visby on Friday night, calling her a “traitor”, according to a report in the Expressen daily.”)

Sweden- Stockholm riots spread west on sixth night

Dutchman in spotlight in international probe into neo-Nazi terror groups (“A 19-year-old Dutchman is one of six people under suspicion of forming an international terrorist neo-Nazi organisation, the Volkskrant reported on Wednesday”)

Noose protest against Italy’s first black minister

Rape:

 

A Rape a Minute, A Thousand Corpses a Year

French caviar heir on trial for rape and torture (“The playboy heir to a famous French caviar empire, notorious for his lavish cocaine-fueled S&M orgies, is set to stand trial on Monday for charges of rape, torture and sexual abuse involving blowtorches, hot wax and cigarette lighters.”)

Fury in Ukraine after 2 police officers accused of raping woman

New York Times spotlights Norway rape (“One in ten Norwegian women over the age of 15 has been raped,” The New York Times has reported in an article”)

Four Russian ‘minigarchs’ gang-raped a student (“Oleg Ivanov and Gregory Andreev Melnikov, both 23, Norayr Davtyan, 22, and Armen Simonyan, 19, filmed the sickening attack on an 18-year-old Malaysian fellow student at their £30,000 a year boarding school using an iPhone.”)

13 years-old Victim of atrocious rape in Russia  (“Zalina was kidnapped in the city of Khasavyurt in September 2010. The kidnappers – a group of 13 years-old teenagers – were holding the girl captive. They were assaulting and raping her for three days.”)

In Norway, Gender Equality Does Not Extend to the Bed (high rate of marital rape in Norway)

Papua New Guinea- PNG girl beheads father after he rapes her: report

Switzerland- Boarding school child abuse trial opens (“The trial of a man accused of sexually abusing over 50 children and teenagers in the French-speaking part of Switzerland opens on Monday.”)

Germany- Daughter says Klaus Kinski raped her (“Pola Kinski, daughter of legendary German actor Klaus Kinski, has told a German magazine that she was sexually abused by her father over 14 years from the age of five.”)

Germany- Kidnapped teen escapes four-night rape ordeal (“A man with a long history of sexual violence was arrested in northern Germany after a teenage girl he had kidnapped and repeatedly raped managed to escape and raise the alarm. “)

Norway- ‘MMS Doc’ jailed for teen girl sex attacks (“A 39-year-old Norwegian doctor has been jailed for ten years for a series of rapes and sex attacks on at least 20 underage female patients – attacks which he filmed on his mobile phone.”)

 Sweden- Six teens convicted of Stockholm gang rape (“Six teenage boys aged 15 to 17 were convicted on Friday after raping a 15-year-old girl in a north-western suburb of Stockholm in March”)

Dozens of sex criminals work in Swedish schools (“Nearly 100 convicted sex criminals work in schools across Sweden, according to a new report, which found many sex offenders have kept their jobs despite having committed their crimes while employed at a school.”)

Argentina- 10 Argentine Cops Charged in Gang Rape of  Teen Boy (“Ten police officers were arrested Friday in the southern Argentine province of Chubut on charges of raping a 16-year-boy, authorities said.”)

USA- America’s Rape Problem: We Refuse to Admit That There Is One

Germany battles rising tide of sex trafficking (“German police are fighting a boom in sex trafficking from the Balkans region, driven by pimps and traffickers recruiting increasingly young women, experts said in Berlin this week.”)

Netherlands- Rape reports reach 24 a week  (“There were 1,297 reports of rape made to Dutch police last year, according to the latest AD crime monitor, due to be published on Saturday.The AD monitor shows police also investigated 1,896 reports of sexual assault and 490 cases of suspected incest”)

 

Teenage violence/delinquency:

 

Teens convicted for Stureby murder (“The two teenagers charged with killing 15-year-old Therese Johansson Rojo in the Stockholm suburb of Stureby in June were found guilty”-”The 16-year-old boy was convicted for murder, while his accomplice, a 16-year-old girl, was convicted for instigation of murder.”)

Finland: 12 years in jail for Aikatalo shooter

USA- Flash Mob Crimes And Organized Looting Have Become A Normal Part Of Life In America

Germany- Five teens held after sexual attack at party (“Five teenagers are being held in custody in Munich after two girls aged 15 and 16 were sexually abused and possibly raped at a party in the centre of the Bavarian city at the end of last week.”)

Norway- Breivik to court: What about my trauma? (“Anders Behring Breivik, on trial for killing 77 people in Norway last year, stunned the Oslo courtroom Wednesday when he drew a parallel between his own “trauma” and that he inflicted on the victims’ families.”)

USA- a 22 years old man had been held after the shooting that left six people dead and more than a dozen injured at Arizona

Sweden- Teen gangs suspected in Stockholm robberies

Netherlands- Fourth teenager arrested in football linesman death investigation

Mental Health Woes Plague ‘Cyberbullies’ and Their Victims

Finland- Teenage girls more prone to violence against dating partners than boys

Australian Crime: Facts & figures report shows teen are the most violent Australians (“The report showed the rate of assaults in the 15-19 age group was 886 per 100,000 people in 2011, compared to a rate of 85 per 100,000 for offenders aged 55-59.Robberies and extortion in the younger age group were committed at a rate of 115 per 100,000 people.Sexual attacks were most prevalent among 15-year-olds, with 64 offences per 100,000 people. This compared to 18 per 100,000 in the 60-64 age group.”)

What is Mob Action? Chicago Teens Plan and Execute Deliberately Violent Flash Mob in Downtown Chicago

Tonight’s Insight: The rise in young female violence

Curfew considered after 400 teens in North Carolina street fight

Lauderhill Mall Locked Down After More Than 100 Teens Fight 

TEENAGE gangsters  in Britain (“Scotland Yard has identified 169 gangs with about 5,000 members in London alone.”)

 Swedish teen girls ‘getting more violent’

 

Heinous/brutal violence/crime:

 

Germany- Mother ‘kills sons before committing suicide (“Germany has been left reeling this weekend by the tragic murders of two young boys. Their 38-year-old mother is thought to have suffocated her sons before committing suicide.”)

Germany- Father kills four children in marital row

Germany- Sex game murder victim ‘paid killer to do it’ (“A man who killed a bank manager during a sex game and boiled his severed head in a pan has told investigators he was paid to do so by his victim, it emerged. “)

USA- 20 Shocking Examples Of How Sadistic And Cruel People Have Become

Switzerland- Sadist ‘sorry’ for offering cannibals mum and girl (” A Swiss sadist who offered his friend’s wife and daughter to cannibals for slaughter, apologized in court to his would-be victims while citing his poor relationship with his mother as the trigger for his actions.”)

Germany- Big pharma ‘human guinea pigs’ spark anger (“Revelations that Western drug companies colluded with East Germany’s communist regime to use more than 50,000 people as “human guinea pigs” in 1980s medical trials has sparked widespread outrage.”)

South Korea/China- Thousands of pills filled with powdered human baby flesh discovered by customs officials in South Korea

USA- Couple face death penalty for killing girl, 10, by locking her in a box in boiling heat… because she took a Popsicle

Khmer Rouge chief jailer gets 19 years for overseeing ‘shocking and heinous’ murders of 15,000 Cambodians

Russian grave-robber ‘lived with 26 female corpses that he dressed as dolls and teddy bears’

USA- Father ‘decapitated and dismembered cerebral palsy son, 7, with a meat cleaver and left his head at side of road’

USA- Iowa man who killed 7—including his girlfriend and her 5 children—commits suicide in prison (“Adam Moss, 35, was found hanging with a bed sheet around his neck tied to wall vent in his cell Wednesday. In 2001 he beat his girlfriend, Leticia Aguilar, 31, and her five children, aged 6 to 12, to death with a hammer.  Moss also beat his former employer, Ronald Fish, 38, and slit his throat”)

USA- What made him do it? Police probe man accused of raping and murdering mother and daughter, 10, in ‘savage attack’ 

Italy- Policeman’s ear ripped off in road-rage attack

Italy- Ambulance crew attacked after road-rage killing (“An ambulance crew was then attacked by an angry crowd of onlookers on their arrival at the scene in the San Basilio suburb, leaving one ambulance driver with a fractured shoulder. Moreno Coppi was shot in the head by 32-year-old Maurizio Alletto after their cars collided, the paper said. Coppi had been driving with his father, Luciano, who tried to intervene. A 25-year-old man was also taken to hospital with stab wounds.”)

Sweden- Prison for man who cut off and ate wife’s lip

Netherlands- Cold case team to look again at 60 prostitute murders

Norway- 2 Women get 12 years for Oslo axe murder

Norway- July 22nd 2011: Hell on a Norwegian island

Sweden- Four arrested for Malmö gang slaying

Sweden- Malmö’s Police ‘embarrassed’ by continued violence 

Sweden- Gun violence ‘most common’ in Malmö

USA- Father ‘killed his ten-week-old daughter and gave his girlfriend two black eyes because he was angry at being left alone with her’

 

STD’s/AIDS:

 

Swedish women hit harder by STD rise: study (“Gonorrhoea and syphilis are making a comeback in Sweden, with the number of reported cases among young women soaring by nearly 60 percent in 2010.”)

Heat map reveals where highest rates of STDs occur in the U.S. – and most are found in the South 

Philadelphia installs condom dispensers in 22 public schools to battle ‘epidemic’ of sexually transmitted diseases 

USA- Dramatic rise in teen STDs (“Professor David Paton says infection rates have rocketed by 30 per cent among 16 to 19-year- olds since the launch of Labour’s £63million Teenage Pregnancy Strategy five years ago.”)

Amsterdam warns about surge in STDs

AIDS In Russia ‘Scarier Than Africa’ Yet Ignored

High Rates of Congenital Syphilis in Russia Linked To Inadequate Prenatal Care

STD Facts: Shocking Statistics You May Not Know About STDs

CDC: 110 million STDs among U.S. men and women

Australia- Report reveals jump in HIV infection rate – ABC News

Australia- HIV rates stable but chlamydia cases skyrocket

New Zealand- Sex clinics treating more youngsters

 

Perversion/Cruelty:

Sadistic sex crimes on animals rise in Sweden

Animal Cruelty Rising to Horrifying Heights in UK

Sweden- ‘Ban sex with animals’

Suspected serial cat killer arrested

Sweden highlights bestiality problem

Masturbating man caught molesting bicycle

Politician jailed after sex with disabled woman

Swedish gyno convicted for sex ‘climax’ demo

Doctor jailed for sexually molesting patients

Swedish man accused of sex with sheep

 Bestiality brothels are ‘spreading through Germany’ warns campaigner as abusers turn to sex with animals as ‘lifestyle choice’ 

David Beckman Sexually Abused Peacock: Police

Dutch Artist -Katinka Simonse also known as TINKEBELL- murdering animals in the name of art

Elite Chinese student gets death for ‘cruel’ crime

Man Charged With Animal Cruelty for Biting Off Baby Bird’s Head

 

See? An informal research during a few hours can bring to surface countless problems and misconducted behavior, more and more common amid the modern society, deprived of or lacking proper values and high customs, giving room for totally wrong, selfish, dangerous trends, and turning the backs on God, tossing out His perfect guidance.

It’s sad to notice that many people is totally unconcerned with the fearsome fate that the society is heading to; there’s no sign that things are getting any better, yet, most persons are too busy with social networks, parties, consumerism, games, sports and a whole lot more superfluous stuffs.. And then, when something bad occurs on society, family or even to themselves, people readily rise questions, doubts, such as “how the society has become so messed?”, “why people are ‘crazy’?”, and so on…

And many solutions, ideas, are put on the table, many researches, surveys and meetings take place, on which scholars, researchers, politicians try to find out a solution for each of these problems, however, they just drop for a while, if much, and thus, returns to their actual levels or even increase.

I think it’s time for people to stop for while, look around themselves, and figure out how much bankrupted and void the modern trends and priorities of life actually are!

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