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J. G. Mendel: Why his discoveries were ignored for 35 (72) years?

From: http://www.weloennig.de/mendel02.htm

Some critical comments about the effects of Darwinism on Biological Research by Pioneers of Genetics as well as further Biologists and Historians of Biology.

Especially in the decade after the publication of Darwin’s ORIGIN (1859) the scientific world was eagerly awaiting the discovery of the laws of heredity by some experimental or other scientist(s). After two lectures in 1865, Mendel published his famous Pisum-treatise VERSUCHE ÜBER PFLANZEN-HYBRIDEN in 1866. His work was quoted at least 14 times before 1900, the year of its ‘rediscovery’. There were references in such widely distributed works as Focke’s DIE PFLANZEN-MISCHLINGE (1881), THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA (1881) and the CATALOGUE OF SCIENTIFIC PAPERS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY (1879).The treatise had been sent to the libraries of some 120 institutions including the Royal and Linnean Society of Great Britain. Moreover Mendel had 40 additional reprints at his disposal, many of which he sent to leading biologists of Europe. In fact, professor Niessl (1903 and 1906) emphasized that Mendel’s work was “well known” at his time. So in the face of the expectations just mentioned, – why was the discovery of the laws of heredity ignored by most scientists for more than 35 years, until 1900, and by the “true Darwinians” (Mayr) for another 37 years? That is 72 years in all!

The reasons have been hinted at or clearly stated by several pioneers of genetics as de Vries (1901), Bateson (1904, 1909, 1924), Johannsen (1909, 1926) as well as several historians of biology and/or biologists as Niessl (1903, 1906), Richter (1941, 1943), Stern (1962), Lönnig (1982, 1986, 1995), Callender (1988) and Bishop (1996):

All the evidence points to the main reason as follows: Mendel’s ideas on heredity and evolution were diametrically opposed to those of Darwin and his followers. Darwin believed in the inheritance of acquired characters (and tried to back up his ideas with his pangenesis hypothesis, which even Stebbins called an “unfortunate anomaly”) and, most important of course, continuous evolution. Mendel, in contrast, rejected both, the inheritance of acquired characters as well as evolution. The laws discovered by him were understood to be the laws of constant elements for a great but finite variation, not only for culture varieties but also for species in the wild (Mendel 1866, pp. 36, 46, 47). In his short treatise EXPERIMENTS IN PLANT HYBRIDIZATION mentioned above Mendel incessantly speaks of “constant characters”, “constant offspring”, “constant combinations”, “constant forms”, “constant law”, “a constant species” etc. (in such combinations the adjective “constant” occurs altogether 67 times in the German original paper). He was convinced that the laws of heredity he had discovered corroborated Gärtner’s conclusion “that species are fixed with limits beyond which they cannot change”. And as Dobzhansky aptly put it: “It is…not a paradox to say that if some one should succeed in inventing a universally applicable, static definition of species, he would cast serious doubts on the validity of the theory of evolution”.

As the Darwinians won the battle for the minds in the 19th century, there was no space left in the next decades for the acceptance of the true scientific laws of heredity discovered by Mendel and further genetical work was continued mainly by Darwin’s critics among the scientists. In agreement with de Vries, Tschermak-Seysenegg, Johannsen, Nilsson, et al., Bateson stated (1909, pp. 2/3):

“With the triumph of the evolutionary idea, curiosity as to the significance of specific differences was satisfied. The Origin was published in 1859. During the following decade, while the new views were on trial, the experimental breeders continued their work, but before 1870 the field was practically abandoned.

In all that concerns the species the next thirty years are marked by the apathy characteristic of an age of faith. Evolution became the exercising-ground of essayists. The number indeed of naturalists increased tenfold, but their activities were directed elsewhere. Darwin’s achievement so far exceeded anything that was thought possible before, that what should have been hailed as a long-expected beginning was taken for the completed work. I well remember receiving from one of the most earnest of my seniors the friendly warning that it was waste of time to study variation, for “Darwin had swept the field“” (emphasis added).

The general acceptance of Darwin’s theory of evolution and his ideas regarding variation and the inheritance of acquired characters are, in fact, the main reasons for the neglect of Mendel’s work, which – in clear opposition to Darwin – pointed to an entirely different understanding of the questions involved (see above).

However, the idea of Bishop (1996) and Di Trocchio (1991) as to Mendel that “most of the experiments described in Versuche are to be considered fictitious” or “…we are today forced by a series of anomalies and incongruities to admit that Mendel’s account of his experiments is neither truthful nor scientifically likely, and that the strategy he really followed must have been completely different” (Di Trocchio 1991, p.487 and p. 491, emphasis added) is in my opinion for several reasons untenable. (1) It does not match Mendel’s character which is distinguished by humility, extreme modesty and accuracy in handling things. (2) Too much is known about his life, work and correspondence to simply deny the existence of the work he has described (see the publications of Orel, Stern, Weiling and many others). (3) Fisher’s claims of fraud in Mendel’s data have already been disproved by several geneticists and historians of biology (Lamprecht 1968, Pilgrim 1986, Weiling 1995, Vollmann and Ruckenbauer 1997, and many other authors, see below). Working with Pisum for 7 years, I myself have found very similar data for several characters as Mendel had. In an answer to Edward, Ira Pilgrim commented (1986, p. 138): “…one had better have a good deal more evidence (such as a set of loaded dice or perhaps the information that the man is a known cheat) before accusing someone of cheating, which is what Fisher did to Mendel, and those who cite Fisher are doing now.”

On the other hand, if not only the accusations of Fisher but also those of Di Trocchio and Bishop were true, they would make Mendel’s work one of the greatest hoaxes in the whole history of science (“he counted 19,959 individuals” etc., Zirkle) – and at the same time the most ingenious fiction ever produced: an invention hitting directly upon the truth of the laws of heredity with many basic repercussions on nearly all biological and medical areas and our understanding of the living world. However, as long as there are no real foundations for these suspicions and as long as no convincing proofs can be advanced, – proofs which could stand the test of any honest court trial, the accusations fall back on those who produce them: fiction, invention and/or lies in the minds of the inventors (according to A. Kohn, Mendel belongs to the “false prophets”, M. Gardner states that “even Brother Mendel lied” (emphasis added) and V. Orel (1996, p. 207) lists further such examples).

The more I ponder and test the accusations regarding Mendel’s works, the more improbable and absurd the accusations appear to me, and the question comes to my mind: Could it be that now – after the creation position of a scientific giant like Mendel has become clear to so many observers – these accusations are the last resort of a more or less unconscious method of evolutionary philosophy to discredit Mendel and his work after all? 

Hubert Markl comments on the accusations of dishonesty against some renowned scientists (1998, p. VII): “Even if Galilei, Newton or Mendel had cheated when presenting the reasons and evidence for the natural laws they had discovered, that which they had recognized as being true, is nevertheless true, because it was found to be right in multiple tests” (see the original German sentence in the next chapter).

Although this is in principle correct, – being deeply impressed by another study of Mendel’s VERSUCHE ÜBER PFLANZEN-HYBRIDEN (1866), – concerning Mendel I think that this comment is unnecessary (as for Galilei and Newton, I do not want to give an opinion here). I presume the proof for the authenticity and precision of Mendel’s work is to be found in – among other things – the paragraph concerning the seventh of the characters studied by Mendel. He writes (p. 11) [English Version according to http://netspace.org/MendelWeb/Mendel.html]:

“With regard to this last character it must be stated that the longer of the two parental stems is usually exceeded by the hybrid, a fact which is possibly only attributable to the greater luxuriance which appears in all parts of plants when stems of very different lengths are crossed. Thus, for instance, in repeated experiments, stems of 1 ft. and 6 ft. in length yielded without exception hybrids which varied in length between 6 ft. and 7 [and] 1/2 ft.”

Thus, in this paragraph Mendel clearly describes a case of heterosis, hybrid vigour, over- or superdominance (as the phenomenon was later named from 1914 [heterosis] onward) (as for the history of the term, the genetical basis of the phenomenon and further examples, see Lönnig 1980:Heterosis bei Pisum sativumL.). Moreover, Mendel describes a second case of heterosis when continuing (pp. 11/12):

“T h e    h y b r i d    s e e d s    in the experiments with seed-coat are often more spotted, and the spots sometimes coalesce into small bluish-violet patches. The spotting also frequently appears even when it is absent as a parental character” (spaced by Mendel).

Without a theoretical basis (which is still controversial for many cases of heterosis even in our age of molecular biology) and in the absence of any experiments, it is not possible to simply ‘invent’ such unexpected phenomena of science. Rather one must “stumble over” such totally unaccustomed and unpredictable curiosities of nature to report them to an amazed audience. Dominance in all of the characters Mendel described was already astonishing enough, but the two cases of overdominance (heterosis, superdominance) represent strong evidence that Mendel had exactly done what he described. (Mendel’s explanation of the superdominant plant length found, “which is possibly only attributable to the greater luxuriance which appears in all parts of plants when stems of very different lengths are crossed” is hardly more than a tautology [here a more inclusive restatement of the phenomenon to be explained: it does not answer the question why the greater luxuriance occurs in all plant parts, of which the unusual plant length is an ingredient]. Mendel’s statement shows that he was really at a loss for any theoretical/genetical answer for the heterosis-phenomenon he had encountered and precisely described.)

One could, perhaps, object that the phenomenon of hybrid vigour had been mentioned before Mendel. However, to describe heterosis for definite characters and organs in definite sizes and quantities in definite species and culture varieties (and all that without any knowledge of the genetical and/or molecular basis of the phenomena reported), so that the experiments not only appear unlikely (in fact, unlikely!), but also prove to be entirely reproducible and true – without really having made them at all – is so improbable that we can confidently forget this objection.

Concerning Mendel’s paper, I agree on the scientific level with Mayr and Stern. Curt Stern stated (1966, p. v): “Gregor Mendel’s short treatise, ‘Experiments on Plant Hybrids’ is one of the triumphs of the human mind. It does not simply announce the discovery of important facts by new methods of observation. Rather, in an act of highest creativity, it presents these facts in a conceptual scheme which gives them general meaning. Mendel’s paper is not solely a historical document. It remains alive as a supreme example of scientific experimentation and profound penetration of data” (Stern and Sherwood 1966). Mayr concurs (1982, p. 726) that by this comment Stern has “so well” characterized Mendel’s achievement.

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Reaping the ‘fruits’ of atheism / secularism

Dissenters of the Christianity and bible often state that Christian dogma is an immoral, outdated, archaic and even evil thing for society… Well, in many Western countries Christianity is fading away, whereas, at the same pace, the secularism and antitheist ideologies skyrockets. So, the question arises: what are the results of the “boom” in these movements? Which fruits are being harvested now? I think it’s better you read it by yourself:

 

 

Dutch Court Says Pedophilia Advocacy Group Martijn Can Continue

Apr 5, 2013

Source: AngelQueen website

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Marthijn Uitenboogaard, right, of “Vereniging Martijn,” and Dutch writer Anton Dautzenberg, a club member,at a press conference March 2, 2012. (Phil Nijhuis/AFP/Getty)

Judges in the Netherlands have ruled that an organization that wants to legalize pedophilia can continue to exist. Cintia Taylor speaks with the group’s most recent leader.

When Marthijn Uittenbogaard’s lawyer contacted him with the news that his pro-pedophilia group could continue to exist, he took to Twitter: “Fortunately, there are still wise judges,” he wrote. Uittenbogaard was the last leader of Martijn, a foundation established in 1982 to promote the legalization of consensual sex between adults and children in The Netherlands.

The group has been fighting a legal battle with the country’s Public Prosecution Service which has been seeking its dismantling since 2010. Last year a court ruled that Martijn be banned on charges that it glorified sexual relations between adults and children. But the appeals court in the northern town of Leeuwarden has now overturned that decision, claiming that although the work of the organization is contradictory to public order, there is no evidence leading to “a threat of disrupting society.”

Uittenbogaard, 40, sees this as a victory for freedom of expression. He thinks society can be very overprotective. “A child can see a lot of violence on television, on every cartoon there’s violence, on movies people get killed,” he explains, “But when Janet Jackson’s breast is shown at the Super Bowl people say: ‘Oh children are watching this.’ Nakedness and everything concerning sexuality is a taboo and violence is the norm. And I think that should be the other way around.” He further believes “almost everyone has pedophile feelings in them. Only the percentage is different, some have more than others.”

According to Uittenborgaard, pedophilia is not only about sex. He is, in fact, against penetration when it comes to small children, but he thinks that those above 12 years old are wise enough to decide whether they want to have intercourse with an adult. But child psychologist Sanderijn van der Doef disagrees. She admits children are aware of their sexuality at an early age, but “they can’t understand the consequences of their decisions, including those related to their sexuality.”

At the height of its activities, Martijn had 650 members, published a quarterly magazine and hosted a website featuring chat rooms, forums, and news archives on pedophilia-related stories.

In 2007 the organization came under fire after a member published on its website photos of children of the royal family, including of the crown prince’s daughter, princess Amalia. Then in 2011, former leader Ad van der Berg was sentenced to four years in prison for possession of child pornography, some 157,500 photos and videos, including 12,000 in which he could be seen posing.In aWikipedia article we find a list of pro-pedophilia organizations (several are, thankfully,  now defunct) such as:

Australia:

  • Australian Man/Boy Love Association (AMBLA).[1]
  • Australian Paedophile Support Group (APSG). Founded in 1980 or 1983 according to other sources. It was succeeded by the Boy Lovers and Zucchini Eaters (BLAZE), another law-abiding group dismantled by police.[2]

Belgium

  • Dokumentatieidients Pedofilie (DSAP).[3] Defunct?
  • Centre de Recherche et d’Information sur l’Enfance et la Sexualité (CRIES). 1982-1986. Founded by Philippe Charpentier. The group published the magazineL’Espoir.[4]
  • Groupe d’Étude sur la Pédophilie. Founded in 1982 by the association gay Infor Homosexualitaté. In 1982 it becomes to CRIES.[19]

Denmark

Norway

  • Norwegian Pedophile Group (NAFP).

Canada

  • Coalition Pédophile Quebecois.[1]

United Kingdom

  • Paedophile Action for Liberation (PAL). 1974-?[3] Defunct.
  • Paedophile Information Exchange (PIE). 1974-1984. One of the most important pedophile associations in Europe. It was affiliated to the National Council for Civil Liberties, now known as Liberty, between 1978 and 1983, year in wich it was expelled.[16] It published the magazinesMagpieUnderstanding Paedophilia and Childhood Rights.[3][17]

USA

Germany

  • AG-Pädo. Founded in 1991 by the gay association Arbeitsgruppe des Bundesverbandes Homosexualität (BVH).[20][1] Active.

 

Quite staggering, to say the least… “Coincidentally”, most groups have been founded during the 70’s and in the following decades, certainly after the rise of atheism in many societies, and the decline of maintenance of traditional values, mostly built on Christian bases. These info presented above are just the tip of iceberg; the more we look into godless/secular societies, the more we perceive the social damage caused by this increasing trend, as we can get a fair hint by reading the following links:

 

Depression/Mental illness/Suicide:

 

Swedish government pays the double for depression (“As sick leave and early retirement brought about by depression have become more common, costs have shot up from 16.1 to 32.9 billion kronor, according to a new study- article from 2007”);

Sweden- Use of anti-depressants slightly reduces suicide rate (“In 1995 1,783 Swedes took their own lives. Ten years later the figure had declined to 1,451, a drop of 18 percent”);

Young Swedes need more mental health help (“One in four 16- to 18-year-olds in Sweden suffers from mental health issues”; “The Swedish economy loses about €8 billion ($10.4 billion) annually, or 2.8 percent of GDP, due to lost productivity and spending on healthcare and social services”);

Swedish teens ‘more depressed than ever’ (“Looking at the 18 to 14 age bracket, the report showed that young adults are increasingly depressed, suffering from anxiety and falling prey to addiction. They are also spending more time in psychiatric institutions, with the increase in young adults receiving institutional care increasing far more rapidly than in any other segment of the population.”)

Patient suicides on the rise in Sweden: report (“In 2007, 468 suicides were reported. Last year, that number had jumped to 599. Most cases come from psychiatric clinics, but reports from both primary and geriatric care also occurred regularly, according to statistics”- 2011)

Sweden-Depression “behind one in three physical ailments” (“One in three people seeking medical care for physical ailments might well be suffering from depression, according to Professor Hallman”)

Norway-Depression hits half the population;

Denmark- Survey: More than one in four high school students suffers from depression (“Twelve percent of the survey respondents suffer from an actual depression, while 14 percent showed signs of depression. Overall, 26.7 percent of the students gave responses that indicated they should seek medical advice for a possible depression”)

England: Third of young unemployed ‘rarely leave house’ (“The poll examined views of some 1,000 youngsters aged 16-24 across the UK.” “It reveals that many feel isolated and are lacking in confidence – 40% feel they are not part of society, 36% believe they will never have a chance of getting a job. One third have suffered depression, 37% rarely go outside the house and 39% suffer from stress.”)

Hikikomori: Why are so many Japanese men refusing to leave their rooms? (“As many as a million young people in Japan are thought to remain holed up in their homes – sometimes for decades at a time.” “Symptoms vary between patients. For some, violent outbursts alternate with infantile behaviour such as pawing at the mother’s body. Other patients might be obsessive, paranoid and depressed.”)

UK: Gang violence cause of high levels of mental disorders (“Young men in gangs are significantly more likely to suffer from a mental disorder and need psychiatric help than other young men, says a UK study. It surveyed 108 gang members and found that half had an anxiety disorder, more than 85% a personality disorder and 25% screened positive for psychosis.”)

France, the world’s most depressed nation?

Finland- Man shoots friend and himself in Akaa, Pirkanmaa

Suicide hit all-time high in Singapore in 2012 (“A 29% increase from the 2011 total number. It boosted by 80% among 20-29 years old people”)

High developed nations and Suicide: A Fresh Perspective (“Why do Swedes and citizens of other relatively equal nations take their lives at a higher rate than residents of more unequal nations? Four investigators have tapped a wealth of newly available data to help make sense out of a paradox that has dogged the research on economic disparities for decades.”)

Russia has second worst suicide rate in the world (“The data suggest that “in the years between 1990 and 2010 about 800,000 Russians killed themselves, which is close to a million – a whole city,””)

Russia: a teenage suicide epidemic?

Russia’s child, teenage suicide rates highest in Europe (” Over the past few years the number of minors who have taken their own lives or made such attempts has grown by 35-37 percent,””According to the agency the country sees 19–20 suicides per 100,000 teenagers a year, which is thrice the world average. For instance, in 2009 1,379 young men and 369 young women aged 15 to 19 committed suicide (the watchdog has not yet published more recent statistics). Per one suicide there are up to two hundred failed suicide attempts.”)

Netherlands- More people commit suicide by train (“In 2011, 215 people committed suicide by throwing themselves in front of a train and 26 people tried to do so, according to new transport ministry figures. Despite efforts to reduce access to the railways and increase surveillance near popular suicide spots, the number of deaths has gone up by 31% over the past eight years, the figures show”)

Netherlands- Suicide rate rises slightly (“In total, 1,647 people committed suicide in the Netherlands last year, up marginally on 2010”)

Suicide is the second biggest cause of deaths among youth (Suicide is the 3rd major cause of death among Brazilian teens- in Portuguese)

Suicide increases 50% in Spain (in Spanish)

France- Child suicide under-estimated: report (“Around 40 suicides among children aged less than 12 are reported each year. In May, an 11-year-old boy hanged himself with his T-shirt in his school in Arles after he had been sent out of the classroom.””The author of the report, psychiatrist Boris Cyrulnik, believes that many deaths reported as accidental should also be considered as suicides””Other factors playing a role are related to the child’s experiences, including abandonment (which plays a role in 31 percent of suicides), physical abuse (21 percent), sexual abuse (8 percent) and incest (5 percent).”)

Germany –Police find body lying ‘among 50 snakes’

Germany- Man dies after setting self on fire at Reichstag (“A 32-year-old man died after stabbing himself and then setting himself on fire in front of the Reichstag in Berlin early Saturday afternoon.”)

Germany- Experts puzzled by Bavaria’s suicide rate (“Despite its low unemployment and high average income, Bavaria recorded a suicide rate of 12.9 deaths per 100,000 people in 2009, which was well above the national average of 10.6 per 100,000, daily Süddeutsche Zeitung reported.” “Some 1,749 people killed themselves in the state that year and 9,616 took their own lives across the whole country. This was more than double the number that died in road accidents.”)

Switzerland ‘one of Europe’s suicide capitals’ (“Between 15,000 and 25,000 people attempt to kill themselves in Switzerland every year, according to a new survey, confirming Switzerland’s place as one of the suicide capitals of Europe.”)

 

Alcoholism/illegal drug addiction:

 

UK- Drugs, alcohol, cigarettes (The UK has one of the biggest binge drinking problems in Europe. That’s according to a study of 15 and 16 year olds in 35 European countries. UK teens drink more in one session than teens in any other European country apart from the Isle of Man and possibly Demark. The report describes binge drinking in the UK as “serious and chronic””)

Norway- Use LSD to combat alcoholism: experts (Great….)

Use of ‘designer drugs’ on the rise in Germany (“Synthetic “designer drugs,” with names such as Extreme Summer, Fly Cherry or Manga XXL are increasingly finding users in Germany, especially among young men, a new government report says.”)

Netherlands- The number of complaints about drugs nuisance almost quadrupled to 619 in Maastricht in May

Denmark- Drug use soars (“There are an estimated 33.000 drug addicts (problem drug users) in a country with a population of 5 million. The government plans to introduce more involuntary treatment to stop this disturbing trend.”)

Drugs in France (“Few sound figures are available on the prevalence of drug use in France. Estimates range from 50,000 to several million drug users (Padieu, 1994)”)

Drug addiction in Belgium

Number of Drug Addicts in Russia Nears 9 Million

HEROIN USE, ABUSE, AND ADDICTION IN CHINA

Japan, Land Of The Rising Meth

Drug use in England and Wales

CANADIAN DRUG CRISIS (“47,000 Canadian deaths are linked to substance abuse annually”)

Drug use in six Latin American countries in focus

We have to find new solutions to Latin America’s drugs nightmare

Illegal Drug Use in Mexico

Drug addiction explodes in Mexico (“According to a recent government study, the number of addicts has nearly doubled from 158,000 to 307,000 in the past six years”)

 

Child/Elderly abuse/violence:

 

Sweden- Police warn of rogue cops swindling elderly (“Fraudsters who impersonate police officers are using increasingly sophisticated techniques in Sweden to rob the elderly in their homes, with reports of such incidents on the rise.”)

Maltreatment reports increasing in Swedish geriatric care (“Bed sores, humiliating treatment and incorrect drug dosages. Many are now reporting maltreatment of elderly to the National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen), and cases are increasing in several parts of the country, according to a survey conducted by news agency TT.”)

Denmark- Man admits burning daughters to death (“The 40 year-old Danish father accused of drugging his two daughters and then burning them to death in his car has confessed his guilt in a Potsdam, Germany court “)

Vienna children’s home ‘saw decades of abuse, rapes’ (“Children were physically and mentally abused for decades at a former Austrian children’s home and city authorities knew about it but did nothing”)

There Are 747,000 Registered Sex Offenders In The United States (“According to the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, there are 747,408 registered sex offenders in the United States right now. “)

France- Boat school founder jailed for raping pupils (“The founder of a French alternative school that took students on boat trips on the high seas was sentenced Friday to 12 years in prison for the rape and sexual abuse of six children.”)

France- Father charged with rape of ‘disabled’ daughters (“A French father of five has been charged with raping three of his daughters, one as young as 15. The shocking development comes a month after the family were found confined to their filthy council house for the last year.”)

 French dad raped daughters and fathered baby (“A man was sentenced to five years in prison for the rape of his two daughters, with one of whom he had a child, in a court in Amiens last Friday.”)

Netherlands- Rape reports reach 24 a week (“There were 1,297 reports of rape made to Dutch police last year, according to the latest AD crime monitor, due to be published on Saturday. This is the equivalent of 24 a week, but the number of actual rapes is likely to be far higher, the paper says. Earlier research showed as few as one in eight women report rape and sex attacks to the police. The AD monitor shows police also investigated 1,896 reports of sexual assault and 490 cases of suspected incest. The total number of sex crime reports is down on 2011.”)

Thailand to extradite Swiss child molester (“A 56-year-old man from St Gallen who abused his daughter and her friend over a period of years is to be extradited from Thailand.”)

Switzerland Paedophile bus driver jailed for new sex crimes  (“Questions are being raised in Ticino about how a convicted paedophile, sentenced on Thursday to five years in jail for re-offending with new sex crimes against small girls, managed to get hired as the driver of a bus carrying young children.”)

Netherlands- Sex case swim teacher charged with rape (“The swimming teacher suspected of abusing dozens of girls is also facing rape charges, the Volkskrant reports on Friday. Benno L is said to have raped a young girl with Downs syndrome during a swimming lesson – a claim which is now included in the charge sheet, the paper says.”)

Netherlands- Reported sex crimes down by one-third (“Last year, there were almost 1,500 reports of rape and 2,100 reports of sexual assault, down almost one-third on 2005. Between 1985 and 2002, the number of reports of rape rose 40%. “)

Germany- Six kids collapse in sex education class  (“There was some distress in the classroom as a number of children collapsed after they were asked to colour in pictures of sexual organs while learning about human reproduction.”)

Germany- Castration only way out of prison for child abuser (“A German judge told a convicted child sex abuser who attacked boys aged between eight months and four years old, he would never be released unless he underwent chemical castration. “)

Norway- Man arrested for rape of elderly women (“A 35-year-old Romanian man has been arrested in Paris in connection with the brutal assault and rape of two elderly women in the Oslo area.”)

Norway- Teen to face trial for rape and murder of Hilda, 98 (“A 19-year-old man has been charged with the rape and murder of 98-year-old Hilda Feste, who was found bludgeoned to death in her home in Os in western Norway in January.”)

UK- ‘Prolific’ child rapist from Downham sentenced to 28 years in prison (“Leslie Burrell, aged 62, of Whitefoot Lane, was found guilty of 39 counts of child abuse including rape, sexual activity with a child and taking indecent photographs of a child. His victims, 11 boys and a girl, were abused between 1972 and 2007.”)

Norway- Police in nationwide child-porn raids

Netherlands- Slight rise in elderly abuse cases, family members usually to blame (“In total, there were 1,027 abuse reports. In 35% of cases a child or grandchild was the abuser but in a quarter of cases it was another family member. Partners and ex-partners are also responsible for around a quarter of cases”)

Parents in Norway jailed for incest (“A Norwegian court Thursday sentenced a couple to 17 years in prison for violence, rape and incestuous relations with their three sons, calling it the country’s worst sexual abuse case.”)

Database for UK and Eire paedophiles/child abusers  (“MORE than 400 children are sexually abused every week in Britain — one every 20 MINUTES, a shock investigation has revealed The 43 police forces in England and Wales recorded 23,097 child sex offences in 2011. That included rape, incest, child prostitution and pornography.”)

 

Racism:

 

The Hunger Games hit by racism row as movie fans tweet vile slurs over casting of black teen actress as heroine Rue

Out of 120 police officers found guilty of racism… just one is sacked

Steep rise in racism and intolerance in France (“Racist, anti-Semitic and Islamophobic acts and threats have risen steeply in France, according to a report published on Thursday by the country’s racism watchdog. Levels of intolerance in the country were a real “concern”, the watchdog concluded.”)

Google’s ‘Jew’ suggestion leads to judge order

Anti-Semitic attacks soar by 82% in France

Germany- Neo-Nazi terror gang trauma still raw a year on (“A year after the neo-Nazi terrorist cell believed to be responsible for nine racial murders and the killing of a police woman was revealed, a leading German official admitted trust in the authorities was seriously damaged. “)

Germany- Frankfurt cops in focus after ‘racist attack’ (“Growing public outrage in Frankfurt over an alleged attack by four police officers which left a black man unconscious and suffering concussion has prompted a debate in the state parliament over claims of racism in the police force. “)

Germany- Nazi salutes aimed at Israeli footballer (“The 24-year-old was subjected to a verbal racist attack while training with his German league club on Sunday, when a group of between five and 10 fans in a crowd of at least 100 chanted anti-Semitic slogans.”)

Teachers ‘need help to fight youth extremism (“Attempts to prevent young Germans from getting into right-wing extremism are failing because of poor coordination and sporadic financing say experts.”)

German police raid Nazi ‘Werewolf’ lairs (“Police launched raids in Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland Wednesday against six suspected members of a far-right “Werewolf” cell modelled on late-World War II plans for a Nazi guerrilla resistance.”)

Neo-Nazi killings, apathy shock German minorities (“Revelations a neo-Nazi gang was able to commit racist murders unhindered for a decade – and Germany’s seeming indifference to the crimes – has shaken the country’s minority communities.”)

Sweden- Neo-Nazi trio threatens ex-party leader Sahlin (“Three men from the neo-Nazi Party of the Swedes (Svenskarnas Parti) followed and threatened former Social Democrat leader Mona Sahlin in Visby on Friday night, calling her a “traitor”, according to a report in the Expressen daily.”)

Sweden- Stockholm riots spread west on sixth night

Dutchman in spotlight in international probe into neo-Nazi terror groups (“A 19-year-old Dutchman is one of six people under suspicion of forming an international terrorist neo-Nazi organisation, the Volkskrant reported on Wednesday”)

Noose protest against Italy’s first black minister

Rape:

 

A Rape a Minute, A Thousand Corpses a Year

French caviar heir on trial for rape and torture (“The playboy heir to a famous French caviar empire, notorious for his lavish cocaine-fueled S&M orgies, is set to stand trial on Monday for charges of rape, torture and sexual abuse involving blowtorches, hot wax and cigarette lighters.”)

Fury in Ukraine after 2 police officers accused of raping woman

New York Times spotlights Norway rape (“One in ten Norwegian women over the age of 15 has been raped,” The New York Times has reported in an article”)

Four Russian ‘minigarchs’ gang-raped a student (“Oleg Ivanov and Gregory Andreev Melnikov, both 23, Norayr Davtyan, 22, and Armen Simonyan, 19, filmed the sickening attack on an 18-year-old Malaysian fellow student at their £30,000 a year boarding school using an iPhone.”)

13 years-old Victim of atrocious rape in Russia  (“Zalina was kidnapped in the city of Khasavyurt in September 2010. The kidnappers – a group of 13 years-old teenagers – were holding the girl captive. They were assaulting and raping her for three days.”)

In Norway, Gender Equality Does Not Extend to the Bed (high rate of marital rape in Norway)

Papua New Guinea- PNG girl beheads father after he rapes her: report

Switzerland- Boarding school child abuse trial opens (“The trial of a man accused of sexually abusing over 50 children and teenagers in the French-speaking part of Switzerland opens on Monday.”)

Germany- Daughter says Klaus Kinski raped her (“Pola Kinski, daughter of legendary German actor Klaus Kinski, has told a German magazine that she was sexually abused by her father over 14 years from the age of five.”)

Germany- Kidnapped teen escapes four-night rape ordeal (“A man with a long history of sexual violence was arrested in northern Germany after a teenage girl he had kidnapped and repeatedly raped managed to escape and raise the alarm. “)

Norway- ‘MMS Doc’ jailed for teen girl sex attacks (“A 39-year-old Norwegian doctor has been jailed for ten years for a series of rapes and sex attacks on at least 20 underage female patients – attacks which he filmed on his mobile phone.”)

 Sweden- Six teens convicted of Stockholm gang rape (“Six teenage boys aged 15 to 17 were convicted on Friday after raping a 15-year-old girl in a north-western suburb of Stockholm in March”)

Dozens of sex criminals work in Swedish schools (“Nearly 100 convicted sex criminals work in schools across Sweden, according to a new report, which found many sex offenders have kept their jobs despite having committed their crimes while employed at a school.”)

Argentina- 10 Argentine Cops Charged in Gang Rape of  Teen Boy (“Ten police officers were arrested Friday in the southern Argentine province of Chubut on charges of raping a 16-year-boy, authorities said.”)

USA- America’s Rape Problem: We Refuse to Admit That There Is One

Germany battles rising tide of sex trafficking (“German police are fighting a boom in sex trafficking from the Balkans region, driven by pimps and traffickers recruiting increasingly young women, experts said in Berlin this week.”)

Netherlands- Rape reports reach 24 a week  (“There were 1,297 reports of rape made to Dutch police last year, according to the latest AD crime monitor, due to be published on Saturday.The AD monitor shows police also investigated 1,896 reports of sexual assault and 490 cases of suspected incest”)

 

Teenage violence/delinquency:

 

Teens convicted for Stureby murder (“The two teenagers charged with killing 15-year-old Therese Johansson Rojo in the Stockholm suburb of Stureby in June were found guilty”-“The 16-year-old boy was convicted for murder, while his accomplice, a 16-year-old girl, was convicted for instigation of murder.”)

Finland: 12 years in jail for Aikatalo shooter

USA- Flash Mob Crimes And Organized Looting Have Become A Normal Part Of Life In America

Germany- Five teens held after sexual attack at party (“Five teenagers are being held in custody in Munich after two girls aged 15 and 16 were sexually abused and possibly raped at a party in the centre of the Bavarian city at the end of last week.”)

Norway- Breivik to court: What about my trauma? (“Anders Behring Breivik, on trial for killing 77 people in Norway last year, stunned the Oslo courtroom Wednesday when he drew a parallel between his own “trauma” and that he inflicted on the victims’ families.”)

USA- a 22 years old man had been held after the shooting that left six people dead and more than a dozen injured at Arizona

Sweden- Teen gangs suspected in Stockholm robberies

Netherlands- Fourth teenager arrested in football linesman death investigation

Mental Health Woes Plague ‘Cyberbullies’ and Their Victims

Finland- Teenage girls more prone to violence against dating partners than boys

Australian Crime: Facts & figures report shows teen are the most violent Australians (“The report showed the rate of assaults in the 15-19 age group was 886 per 100,000 people in 2011, compared to a rate of 85 per 100,000 for offenders aged 55-59.Robberies and extortion in the younger age group were committed at a rate of 115 per 100,000 people.Sexual attacks were most prevalent among 15-year-olds, with 64 offences per 100,000 people. This compared to 18 per 100,000 in the 60-64 age group.”)

What is Mob Action? Chicago Teens Plan and Execute Deliberately Violent Flash Mob in Downtown Chicago

Tonight’s Insight: The rise in young female violence

Curfew considered after 400 teens in North Carolina street fight

Lauderhill Mall Locked Down After More Than 100 Teens Fight 

TEENAGE gangsters  in Britain (“Scotland Yard has identified 169 gangs with about 5,000 members in London alone.”)

 Swedish teen girls ‘getting more violent’

 

Heinous/brutal violence/crime:

 

Germany- Mother ‘kills sons before committing suicide (“Germany has been left reeling this weekend by the tragic murders of two young boys. Their 38-year-old mother is thought to have suffocated her sons before committing suicide.”)

Germany- Father kills four children in marital row

Germany- Sex game murder victim ‘paid killer to do it’ (“A man who killed a bank manager during a sex game and boiled his severed head in a pan has told investigators he was paid to do so by his victim, it emerged. “)

USA- 20 Shocking Examples Of How Sadistic And Cruel People Have Become

Switzerland- Sadist ‘sorry’ for offering cannibals mum and girl (” A Swiss sadist who offered his friend’s wife and daughter to cannibals for slaughter, apologized in court to his would-be victims while citing his poor relationship with his mother as the trigger for his actions.”)

Germany- Big pharma ‘human guinea pigs’ spark anger (“Revelations that Western drug companies colluded with East Germany’s communist regime to use more than 50,000 people as “human guinea pigs” in 1980s medical trials has sparked widespread outrage.”)

South Korea/China- Thousands of pills filled with powdered human baby flesh discovered by customs officials in South Korea

USA- Couple face death penalty for killing girl, 10, by locking her in a box in boiling heat… because she took a Popsicle

Khmer Rouge chief jailer gets 19 years for overseeing ‘shocking and heinous’ murders of 15,000 Cambodians

Russian grave-robber ‘lived with 26 female corpses that he dressed as dolls and teddy bears’

USA- Father ‘decapitated and dismembered cerebral palsy son, 7, with a meat cleaver and left his head at side of road’

USA- Iowa man who killed 7—including his girlfriend and her 5 children—commits suicide in prison (“Adam Moss, 35, was found hanging with a bed sheet around his neck tied to wall vent in his cell Wednesday. In 2001 he beat his girlfriend, Leticia Aguilar, 31, and her five children, aged 6 to 12, to death with a hammer.  Moss also beat his former employer, Ronald Fish, 38, and slit his throat”)

USA- What made him do it? Police probe man accused of raping and murdering mother and daughter, 10, in ‘savage attack’ 

Italy- Policeman’s ear ripped off in road-rage attack

Italy- Ambulance crew attacked after road-rage killing (“An ambulance crew was then attacked by an angry crowd of onlookers on their arrival at the scene in the San Basilio suburb, leaving one ambulance driver with a fractured shoulder. Moreno Coppi was shot in the head by 32-year-old Maurizio Alletto after their cars collided, the paper said. Coppi had been driving with his father, Luciano, who tried to intervene. A 25-year-old man was also taken to hospital with stab wounds.”)

Sweden- Prison for man who cut off and ate wife’s lip

Netherlands- Cold case team to look again at 60 prostitute murders

Norway- 2 Women get 12 years for Oslo axe murder

Norway- July 22nd 2011: Hell on a Norwegian island

Sweden- Four arrested for Malmö gang slaying

Sweden- Malmö’s Police ’embarrassed’ by continued violence 

Sweden- Gun violence ‘most common’ in Malmö

USA- Father ‘killed his ten-week-old daughter and gave his girlfriend two black eyes because he was angry at being left alone with her’

 

STD’s/AIDS:

 

Swedish women hit harder by STD rise: study (“Gonorrhoea and syphilis are making a comeback in Sweden, with the number of reported cases among young women soaring by nearly 60 percent in 2010.”)

Heat map reveals where highest rates of STDs occur in the U.S. – and most are found in the South 

Philadelphia installs condom dispensers in 22 public schools to battle ‘epidemic’ of sexually transmitted diseases 

USA- Dramatic rise in teen STDs (“Professor David Paton says infection rates have rocketed by 30 per cent among 16 to 19-year- olds since the launch of Labour’s £63million Teenage Pregnancy Strategy five years ago.”)

Amsterdam warns about surge in STDs

AIDS In Russia ‘Scarier Than Africa’ Yet Ignored

High Rates of Congenital Syphilis in Russia Linked To Inadequate Prenatal Care

STD Facts: Shocking Statistics You May Not Know About STDs

CDC: 110 million STDs among U.S. men and women

Australia- Report reveals jump in HIV infection rate – ABC News

Australia- HIV rates stable but chlamydia cases skyrocket

New Zealand- Sex clinics treating more youngsters

 

Perversion/Cruelty:

Sadistic sex crimes on animals rise in Sweden

Animal Cruelty Rising to Horrifying Heights in UK

Sweden- ‘Ban sex with animals’

Suspected serial cat killer arrested

Sweden highlights bestiality problem

Masturbating man caught molesting bicycle

Politician jailed after sex with disabled woman

Swedish gyno convicted for sex ‘climax’ demo

Doctor jailed for sexually molesting patients

Swedish man accused of sex with sheep

 Bestiality brothels are ‘spreading through Germany’ warns campaigner as abusers turn to sex with animals as ‘lifestyle choice’ 

David Beckman Sexually Abused Peacock: Police

Dutch Artist -Katinka Simonse also known as TINKEBELL- murdering animals in the name of art

Elite Chinese student gets death for ‘cruel’ crime

Man Charged With Animal Cruelty for Biting Off Baby Bird’s Head

 

See? An informal research during a few hours can bring to surface countless problems and misconducted behavior, more and more common amid the modern society, deprived of or lacking proper values and high customs, giving room for totally wrong, selfish, dangerous trends, and turning the backs on God, tossing out His perfect guidance.

It’s sad to notice that many people is totally unconcerned with the fearsome fate that the society is heading to; there’s no sign that things are getting any better, yet, most persons are too busy with social networks, parties, consumerism, games, sports and a whole lot more superfluous stuffs.. And then, when something bad occurs on society, family or even to themselves, people readily rise questions, doubts, such as “how the society has become so messed?”, “why people are ‘crazy’?”, and so on…

And many solutions, ideas, are put on the table, many researches, surveys and meetings take place, on which scholars, researchers, politicians try to find out a solution for each of these problems, however, they just drop for a while, if much, and thus, returns to their actual levels or even increase.

I think it’s time for people to stop for while, look around themselves, and figure out how much bankrupted and void the modern trends and priorities of life actually are!

How the flies fly- Video from TED website

From: TED

Michael Dickinson explains how the flies are capable of flying, a very intriguing subject; see the video below, audio in English with subtitles in varied idioms!

 

These annoying insects are an amazing example of biological engineering! They’re capable of some high-speed aeronautic manoeuvres that have long boggled the minds of aircraft designers and engineers. If a male fly chasing a potential mate sees her change course ever so slightly, he will respond with an appropriate change of his own in just 30 milliseconds!

It has long been known that the amazing stability of flies as they zip around has a lot to do with the two tiny club-shaped ‘balancing organs’ they have, called halteres. Some insects have four wings, while others, like the so-called ‘true flies’, have two (hence their ordinal name Diptera).

They have long been known for their function as flight stabilizers, like gyroscopes on airplanes that prevent excessive roll, pitch or yaw. Part of the way this works is that the halteres mostly beat in antiphase to the actual wings. But since such a stabilizing function would tend to make the fly keep flying straight, how does it manage to ‘disable’ this gyroscopic function in order to change course so quickly?

Researcher Dr Michael Dickinson of the University of California at Berkeley, along with a number of colleagues, long knew that flies will perform intricate flight manoeuvres in response to visual stimuli (a fly swatter coming down on them, for instance!). Sophisticated experiments in which flies were tethered in little corsets had shown that images perceived by the fly’s eye-brain system would cause automatic changes in wing activity. Yet a mystery remained, in that for years no one had been able to find evidence of any connecting nerve fibres between the brain and the muscles that controlled the wings.

The breakthrough began when Dickinson was reviewing a much earlier paper that described in great detail some very intricate musculature controlling the halteres. His team then performed more experiments which showed that visual cues while flying did not affect the wing muscles, but significantly affected the muscles controlling the halteres. This suggests that visual information flows directly from the eye/brain to the halteres, not the wings.

Read the full article here: http://creation.com/why-a-fly-can-fly-like-a-fly.

 

God bless you all.

Hello, living fossil!

Reading many textbooks, mainstream articles, we are presented reports of absurdly long ages, “ancient”, “primitive” animals and plants depicted as the predecessors of the present, “modern” ones… Dinosaurs, trilobites and numberless others extinct species are alleged to have lived in Earth dozens of millions years ago. But, how can they be so sure of these “facts”? What if the dating methods aren’t accurate, and all they do is making use of untested speculations? It’s defended that, giving millions of years, complex, functional and fit features can spontaneously appear in organisms…

It’s also said the human evolved from ancient primates a “mere” million years ago, that means: in so few (evolutionary) time we evolved our wonderful anatomy (i.e., been able to walk upright, skilled hands with thumbs to handle stuffs, etc), speaking ability, amazing brain, consciousness, complex languages, etc! This is quite improbable and contradictory, even more after noticing the following species, called “living-fossils”.

“A living fossil is a living species (or clade) of organism which appears to be the same as a species otherwise only known from fossils and which has no close living relatives. These species have all survived major extinction events, and generally retain low taxonomic diversities.” Wikipedia

Beginning with a classic, the coelacanth:

Coelacanths are a part of the clade Sarcopterygii, or the lobe-finned fishes. Externally, there are several characteristics that distinguish the coelacanth from other lobe-finned fish. They possess a three-lobed caudal fin, also called a trilobate fin or a diphycercal tail.

Claimed to be extinct since the Cretaceous period (145 ± 4 to 66 million years (Ma) ago), found only in fossils… Well, until 1938! In that year fishermen off the coast of Madagascar hauled a live coelacanth to the surface in their nets!

Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer, who alerted the scientific community to the find, with the 1938 specimen.

Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer, who alerted the scientific community to the find, with the 1938 specimen.

Any difference to its grandpa?

5192coelacanthcomp

Explanations for this lack of “evolution”?

“The reason for this lower substitution rate is still unknown, although a static habitat and a lack of predation over evolutionary timescales could be contributing factors to a lower need for adaptation.” (Nature)

If you have predators chasing you, surely you’ll evolve new features quickly, right?

To make things weirder, Wikipedia states:

“They follow the oldest known living lineage of Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish and tetrapods), which means they are more closely related to lungfishreptiles and mammals than to the common ray-finned fishes.

A BBC article reiterates this sarcopterygii-mammal kinship:

“This class of fish was ancestral to all of the four-legged vertebrates: amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.” (BBC Nature)

If 400 million years (ncbi) hasn’t caused a change at all in the coelacanth, how much  time would thus be needed to turn it into a human?

Since 1938 others coelacanths have been caught, not just off the African and Madagascan coastlines, but also in Indonesian waters. It’s weird to see no sign of mutation, evolution after so many time! Maybe a fish is a lot complex, thus, demanding even more time to turn into something else! What about something smaller, huh, a mite to begin with; surely, such a small and “simple” creature could have changed a lot after millions of years:

Gracilidris ant

This Gracilidris specimen caught on amber is alleged to have lived in  the upper Oligocene or lower Miocene (15-20 million years ago), and surely, being a small creature with few chromosomes, it has modified a lot after that time, right? Not!

What about a 100-million years old spider?

No new (nor outdated, ancient, “vestigial”) feature over again..

The examples of living fossils with zero sign of evolution are endless:

Nautilus (500 million years old):

Tuatara (spine-bearer, in Maori idiom) (around 200 million years ago):

 

 

Tuataras are reptiles, yet retain more primitive characteristics than lizards and snakes.” says a Wikipedia article, however, only because of its resembling ancient look, such as a spiny crest along the back, its dentition, in which two rows of teeth in the upper jaw overlap one row on the lower jaw, unique among living species, and some features in its skeleton, which is said to be “apparently evolutionarily retained from fish” . Nonetheless, how can the tuatara be primitive and at the same time having such a magnificent, complex characteristics: 

“The eyes can focus independently, and are specialized with a duplex retina that contains two types of visual cells for both day and night vision, and a tapetum lucidum which reflects onto the retina to enhance vision in the dark. There is also a third eyelid on each eye, the nictitating membrane.”

A characteristic which tuataras share with lizards is an eye on the top of their heads. This third or pineal eye however is better developed in the tuataras than in other living creatures. It is visible in young animals as a translucent scale, but as they age it becomes covered with normal skin. Underneath lie a lens, a retina and a nerve which passes through a hole in the top of the skull to the brain. As the structure lacks an iris it may simply be sensitive to light, for these animals are for the most part nocturnal, or active at night. SOme say it may be useful in absorbing ultraviolet rays to manufacture vitamin D,[7] as well as to determine light/dark cycles, and help with thermoregulation.[13]

It’s interesting that they are endangered with risk of extinction, both European and New Zealand varieties.  It was the tuataras’ difficulties in competing with mammals like rats, for example, that ended in the elimination of the tuatara from the larger New Zealand islands. So, it boggles our mind with the question: how could such “unfit” animal survive that long, whereas creatures like dinosaurs, megalodon, predator X and other much more able creatures come into extinction?

“That is one of the big mysteries about biodiversity….Why these evolutionary losers are still around is a very hard thing to explain. They have been drawing inside straights for hundreds of millions of years. It’s a real mystery to biologists how there can be any tuataras, given their low rate of speciation.”

[Alfaro, M. E. et al. Nine exceptional radiations plus high turnover explain species diversity in jawed vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Published online before print July 24, 2009.]

Ginkgo Biloba (170 million-year old)

                        

Any difference here?

Echidna (supposedly split from Platypuses 115 million years ago)

                        

Weird animal which belongs to the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals, along with platypus! The fact that it lays eggs has been used by scholars as evidence of mammal’s evolutionary past, allegedly evolved out of reptiles. But there’s no fossil evidence showing any gradual modification, no reptile-like ancestor, nothing! Another strange characteristic of echidna is the presence of a non-venomous spur on the hind feet of males. Also, there’s  no sign that they are in transition phase, “evolving” into a new form, species, they were just born this way.

 

Hoatzin (24-48 mya):

 

 

This bird lives in South America forests. It’s considered a living fossil merely because it has an uncommon feature: The newly hatched bird has claws on its thumb and first finger and so is enabled to climb on the branches of trees with great dexterity! When it reaches the adulthood, however, the claws are gone.

 

Young Hoatzin climbing the tree with its claws

 

Crocodiles (83.5 mya):

                     

 

Well, 83.5 millions years old, but no single feather has appeared…

 

Horseshoe crab (450 mya):

        

 

450 million years later… It absolutely remained the same fashion. It’s worth note that the horseshoe crab has a wonderful immunologic system which responds to any bacterial infection much faster than that of vertebrates! No wonder Dr. Norman Wainwright (immunologist at the  Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, USA), said, ‘One of the reasons the horseshoe crab has survived for so long is its advanced immune system’ (ABCNews)

Researchers at MBL are using one species, called Limulus polyphemus, to develop a test for bacteria. Bacterial cell walls contain distinctive LPS molecules (lipopolysaccharides, molecules containing sugar units and a fat). These trigger a cascade of enzyme reactions in horseshoe crab blood that attack the bacterial proteins and culminate in the production of a protein called fibrin. This clots the crab’s blood and, in the wild, would effectively seal a wound. (CMI)

So it turns out that this “primitive” creature has a much more efficient system than the “advanced” vertebrates?

There are much more examples of these living fossils, none of them showing any slight sign of evolution; we have insects, invertebrates with advanced eyes, such as the trilobites, dragonflies, etc, dated to million of years. Meanwhile, in a few million years, however, this astounding evolution occurred:

 

 

Well, this reminds me of a famous quote:

“Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution” (Theodosius Dobzhansky)

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