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Abiogenesis enigma: Protein’s origin

Proteins

As you might know, proteins are one of the major “building blocks” of cells; there’s up to 10.000 different types of proteins, all manufactured inside each cell. Abiogenesis theorists  obviously supports the view that these molecules have arisen “by chance”, in a prebiotic world, billion years ago, however, to date, they have absolutely no clue about it, as we can read from this article:

“Proteins are the most complex chemicals synthesized in nature and must fold into complicated three-dimensional structures to become active. This poses a particular challenge in explaining their evolution from non-living matter. So far, efforts to understand protein evolution have focused on domains, independently folding units from which modern proteins are formed. Domains however are themselves too complex to have evolved de novo in an abiotic environment. We think that domains arose from the fusion of shorter, non-folding peptides, which evolved as cofactors supporting a primitive, RNA-based life form (the ‘RNA world’).” 1

So, why is it so complicated to explain its origin? Despite the often repeated innuendo that life and all of its components has “assuredly” originated through natural means, the clear failure of scientists to solve this puzzle can be easily explained by some truths about proteins, its synthesis, structure and so on. After that, no one can reasonably take its abiogenetic origin as logically granted. These truths also explain without shadow of doubt the intriguing fact that absolutely no single protein (even the lesser one, composed of only 8 amino acids) has ever been observed to appear anywhere in the world, outside the cells and high-tech labs, of course!

What’s a protein?

“Proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactionsreplicating DNAresponding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in folding of the protein into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.

A polypeptide is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids;” 2

Talking about amino acids, we’d like to recall another crucial problem for abiogenesis: The absence of self-occurring homochiral mixtures. As it has been told in a previous article, the laws of thermodynamics obliges the occurrence of racemic mixtures, ever:

“The left and right handed forms have identical free energy (G), so the free energy difference (ΔG) is zero. The equilibrium constant for any reaction (K) is the equilibrium ratio of the concentration of products to reactants. The relationship between these quantities at any Kelvin temperature (T) is given by the standard equation:

K = exp (–ΔG/RT)

where R is the universal gas constant (= Avogadro’s number x Boltzmann’s constant k) = 8.314 J/K.mol.

For the reaction of changing left-handed to right-handed amino acids (L → R), or the reverse (R → L), ΔG = 0, so K = 1. That is, the reaction reaches equilibrium when the concentrations of R and L are equal; that is, a racemate is produced.”

Therefore, any abiogenetic theorist has this astounding problem to deal with from the very beginning; without homochiral monomers, we can have zero possibility of a ‘magic’ protein self-assembling…

 

Protein synthesis

 

It’s quite uncanny that intelligent people with advanced knowledge on the subject might attempt to conceive hypothesis of such molecules originating spontaneously, in the wild and morbid inorganic environment, because for cells to build proteins, an intricate, complex and laborious process must take place!

 

 

First, genetic information is needed:

“Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes. Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this protein. The genetic code is a set of three-nucleotide sets called codons and each three-nucleotide combination designates an amino acid (for example AUG (adenineuracilguanine) is the code for methionine).”

 

Many proteins use more that one of the 64 possible codons to be built. Moreover, that specific genetic code must be first translated, transcribed:

“Genes encoded in DNA are first transcribed into pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) by proteins such as RNA polymerase. Most organisms then process the pre-mRNA (also known as a primary transcript) using various forms of Post-transcriptional modification to form the mature mRNA, which is then used as a template for protein synthesis by the ribosome.”

Oh great, a bit complicated, isn’t it? Please, read the Wikipedia article referring to the messenger RNA, for further comprehension of what it is, its manufacturing, composition, etc; all of which adds up more complexity for the protein origin’s explanation.

 

 

The process of synthesizing a protein from an mRNA template is known as translation. The mRNA is loaded onto the ribosome and is read three nucleotides at a time by matching each codon to its base pairing anticodon located on a transfer RNA molecule, which carries the amino acid corresponding to the codon it recognizes. The enzyme aminoacyl tRNA synthetase “charges” the tRNA molecules with the correct amino acids. The growing polypeptide is often termed the nascent chain. Proteins are always biosynthesized from N-terminus to C-terminus.[6]

The size of a synthesized protein can be measured by the number of amino acids it contains and by its total molecular mass, which is normally reported in units of daltons (synonymous with atomic mass units), or the derivative unit kilodalton (kDa). Yeast proteins are on average 466 amino acids long and 53 kDa in mass.[5] The largest known proteins are the titins, a component of the muscle sarcomere, with a molecular mass of almost 3,000 kDa and a total length of almost 27,000 amino acids.[8]

 

Phew! How complicated! You may ask now: are we finally done? And I reply you: Huh, nope! Now that the ribosome, together with the rRNA and more than 50 other proteins, has finally finished the process, a protein is formed. However, it is always found in a  random coil shape. So what? This shape is mostly useless for its usage on organism, as we can read:

Each protein exists as an unfolded polypeptide or random coil when translated from a sequence of mRNA to a linear chain of amino acids. This polypeptide lacks any stable (long-lasting) three-dimensional structure (the left hand side of the neighbouring figure). 3

In that randomly coiled shape, the protein is highly unstable, breakable, useless for cell building, so, for proper biological use and better stability, the protein folding process must take place. This 3D-shape is known as the native state.

The correct three-dimensional structure is essential to function, although some parts of functional proteins may remain unfolded.[4] Failure to fold into native structure generally produces inactive proteins, but in some instances misfolded proteins have modified or toxic functionality. Several neurodegenerative and other diseases are believed to result from the accumulation of amyloid fibrils formed by misfolded proteins.[5] Many allergies are caused by incorrect folding of some proteins, for the immune system does not produce antibodies for certain protein structures.[6]

Another importance of the protein folding is:

 

Minimizing the number of hydrophobic side-chains exposed to water is an important driving force behind the folding process.[9] Formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds provides another important contribution to protein stability.[10] 

 

And how does the folding occurs?

 

 

The amino-acid sequence of a protein determines its native conformation.[7] A protein molecule folds spontaneously during or after biosynthesis. While these macromolecules may be regarded as “folding themselves“, the process also depends on the solvent (water or lipid bilayer),[8] the concentration of salts, the pH, the temperature, the possible presence of cofactors and of molecular chaperones.

The process of folding often begins co-translationally, so that the N-terminus of the protein begins to fold while the C-terminal portion of the protein is still beingsynthesized by the ribosome. Specialized proteins called chaperones assist in the folding of other proteins.

Although most globular proteins are able to assume their native state unassisted, chaperone-assisted folding is often necessary in the crowded intracellular environment to prevent aggregation; chaperones are also used to prevent misfolding and aggregation that may occur as a consequence of exposure to heat or other changes in the cellular environment.

There are two models of protein folding that are currently being confirmed: The first: The diffusion collision model, in which a nucleus is formed, then the secondary structure is formed, and finally these secondary structures are collided together and pack tightly together. The second: The nucleation-condensation model, in which the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein are made at the same time. Recent studies have shown that some proteins show characteristics of both of these folding models.

The essential fact of folding, however, remains that the amino acid sequence of each protein contains the information that specifies both the native structure and the pathway to attain that state. Folding is a spontaneous process independent of energy inputs from nucleoside triphosphates. The passage of the folded state is mainly guided by hydrophobic interactions, formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals forces, and it is opposed by conformational entropy.

Only after the folding process, we have an useful, stable protein, with a properly designed shape with its up to four layers, so that the molecule can perform its biological function.

But, remember, many conditions and external factors can destroy proteins, such as hydrolysis (it’s a slow, but ceaseless process, because proteins are metastable, hydrophobic) and others:

Under some conditions proteins will not fold into their biochemically functional forms. Temperatures above or below the range that cells tend to live in will cause thermally unstableproteins to unfold or “denature” (this is why boiling makes an egg white turn opaque). High concentrations of solutes, extremes of pH, mechanical forces, and the presence of chemical denaturants can do the same.

A fully denatured protein lacks both tertiary and secondary structurel. Under certain conditions some proteins can refold; however, in many cases, denaturation is irreversible.[15] Cells sometimes protect their proteins against the denaturing influence of heat with enzymes known as chaperones or heat shock proteins, which assist other proteins both in folding and in remaining folded. Some proteins never fold in cells at all except with the assistance of chaperone molecules, which either isolate individual proteins so that their folding is not interrupted by interactions with other proteins or help to unfold misfolded proteins, giving them a second chance to refold properly. This function is crucial to prevent the risk of precipitation into insoluble amorphous aggregates.

 

For a further an in-depth study about different factors capable of disrupting proteins, read the following articles:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_biosynthesis

http://creation.com/native-folds-in-polypeptide-chains-1 (a series of 6 parts)

 

To conclude our observation, it’s impossible not to be sceptic of any theoretic proposition that claims self-caused origin of proteins, because it turns out that science unveiled tons of facts that easily prevent any possibility of such proposed scenario:

 

-Absence of homochiral monomers forming in the environment;

-Necessity of genetic specific information;

-Need for an highly controlled ambient, with proper Ph level, temperature, absence of mechanical forces that may easily damage, disrupt the protein, toxins, etc; 

-Need for specific methods to protect the protein against hydrolysis, oxidation;

-Necessity of having 50 other types of protein already manufactured to help on the protein synthesis;

 

The question raises: how in the world could such a specific set of conditions be found in a prebiotic Earth? Such condition can only be barely found in a first-class laboratory, driven by qualified and experienced scientists!

You might as well enjoy watching this short video talking about protein synthesis:

 

References

1. <http://www.eb.tuebingen.mpg.de/research/departments/protein-evolution/protein-evolution.html>

2. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein>

3. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_folding>

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Water and origin of life

 

Although water is portrayed by many as the solution to, or star player in how life came to be, the fact is that water spontaneously breaks down complex molecules that living organisms need to exist: such as DNA,* RNA, proteins and their components.**   For example, an article on Molecular Cloning says that  “Proteins are usually soluble in water solutions because they have hydrophilic amino acids on their surfaces.”1

 

Amino acids have been called the building blocks of life, and when two or more are joined together they are called a peptide and the bond that holds them together is called a peptide bond.  When ten or more are linked together they may be called a polypeptide, and if they are ordered and folded correctly, they become a protein.  And in a wikipedia article on peptide bonds we are told that a peptide bond can be broken by … hydrolysis” ***  (just by) … “adding … water” … (and that the) “… bonds in proteins are metastable, meaning that in the presence of water they will break spontaneously.” 2

 

A simple video explain dehydratation and hydrolysis:

 

Another article on this topic 3  says that hydrolysis is:

 

“A chemical reaction in which water is used to break the bonds of certain substances. In biotechnology and living organisms, these substances are often polymers … such as that … (exist) between two amino acids in a protein … “

 

Dr. A. E. Wilder-Smith, (Ph.D. organic chemistry) also brought this out in a book he wrote on life’s complexity and origin.4

 

“Amino acids and other building blocks present in the macromolecules of living matter aggregate to form larger units … by … (a reaction) called condensation.****  The combinations usually involve the elimination of one molecule of  water between two combining molecules.  It is the removal of this molecule of water which presents the major difficulty  …  For, the removal of this water molecule from between two combining molecules requires energy which must … be supplied in some fashion.

“A further difficulty arises in this question of the elimination of water.  For, in the prebiotic world, it is assumed that the condensation reaction took place in the presence of a large … (supply) of water which would tend, according to the law of mass action, to hinder the condensation process and … (promote)decomposition (or breakdown of peptides and polypeptides). … The more water, the less condensation.”

 

“If the reaction is to proceed in the direction of the dipeptide, (or two amino acids that are joined together) … the water molecule … (that results) must be removed from the reaction system since the reaction is reversible.  If it is not removed … (it will) hydrolyze (or separate) the dipeptide back again to the constituent amino acids …”

 

This means the “primordial soup,” or “warm little pond”  where Darwin speculated that life began could not have been simply water, since it would “hydrolyze” or break down complex molecules back into their basic original amino acid as soon as they formed.  Dr. Charles McCombs explains the problem as follows in an article he wrote on the subject of why life by chance  is virtually, if not utterly and completely impossible.  

 

“Every time one component reacts with a second component forming the polymer, the chemical reaction also forms water as a byproduct …  There is a rule of chemical reactions … called the Law of Mass Action that says all reactions proceed in a direction from highest to lowest concentration. This means that any reaction that produces water cannot be performed in the presence of water. This Law of Mass Action provides a total hindrance to protein, DNA/RNA, and polysaccharide formation because even if the condensation took place, the water from a supposed primordial soup would immediately hydrolyze them. Thus, if they are formed according to evolutionary theory, the water would have to be removed … which is impossible in a “watery” soup.5

 

But because the “watery soup” in living cells is surrounded by a membrane, the “water” inside the cell “behaves very differently” 6  than ordinary water.  In fact, the “water” in a cell is not water but a blend of water, amino acids, proteins, and many other chemicals called cytosol. This mixture is the result of the DNA’s ability to regulate what goes in and out of the cell — via  numerous channels that control and regulate what is allowed to pass through the cell membrane, and thus to create and maintain a favorable environment and PH for DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, and life itself to exist. 

If the concentration of amino acids is high enough, some of them will link up with others to form dipeptides and tripeptides.  An article on this subject states that:

“is important to recognize that by whatever reactions polymerization (or the joining of amino acids)occurred, they had to be reactions that would occur in an essentially aqueous environment. This presents difficulties because condensation of amino acids to form peptides, or of nucleotides to form RNA or DNA, is not thermodynamically favorable in aqueous solution.”{6}

The explanation for this is partly that the concentration of amino acids decreases as amino acids form pairs (called dipeptides) in a solution. This decreased concentration causes the velocity of the peptide synthesis reaction to slow down, and some dipeptides begin breaking up, again becoming single amino acids. The solution reaches equilibrium when just as many dipeptides dissociate as associate. A very tiny fraction of the dipeptides add another amino acid to form a tripeptide. … Oligopeptides (Oligo=few) and polypeptides (poly=many) will form only very rarely. Tripeptides dissociate faster than dipeptides in the same solution. 7

In this regard, a tripeptide has only three amino acids, while the simplest protein ever found has at least eight: connected in a specific order.

Jeffrey P. Tomkins makes the following statement in a book on the design and complexity of the cell:

 

“… plasma membranes are … quite complex and … (function) as more than just a barrier … Some key functions  of the membrane involve the import and export of chemical compounds through specialized transmembrane channels, sensory and signaling processes via specialized receptor proteins imbedded in the membrane, and osmotic (water) regulation … through special portals.” 8

“Within the … membrane is the internal cell matrix … called cytosol or cytoplasm, which is a semi-fluid substance.  …  Like the … membrane, the complexity of … cytoplasm seems to grow with every new discovery in cell biology.” 8

 

Tomkins also tells us that water must be regulated and controlled outside the cell as well in what is called the “extra cellular matrix.”  

This means that the water of yesteryear, or the distant past, almost certainly performed just like the water of today, and that water, dirt and chemicals, could not have created life anymore than fuel, dirt, and metallic ore, — by themselves — could create a car, motorcycle, or an  airplane: even in millions, billions, or trillions of years.  

 

 

A typical human cell would undergo 2,000 to 10,000 spontaneous DNA hydrolysis damage events every day just because it is an aqueous environment.(The only reason that DNA functions as well as it does is that cells come equipped with an amazing array of cooperative DNA repair mechanisms. For example, polymerase replication during cell division might produce 6 million errors per cell, but then proofreading machinery can reduce this to 10,000 and then mis-match repair machinery could reduce this to 100. It appears to be impossible, however, to replicate the 6 billion nucleotides in a human cell in a completely error-free manner.

A way to remove water is with certain high-energy chemicals that absorb water, called condensing agents. If the reaction between condensing agent C and water is:

C + H2O → D (2)

and if ΔG2 of reaction (2) is negative and large enough, it can couple with reaction (1):

H2NCHRCOOH + H2NCHR′COOH + C → H2NCHRCONHCHR′COOH + D (3)

ΔG3 = ΔG1 + ΔG2. If ΔG3 is large and negative, the equilibrium constant for reaction 3, K3, will be large, and this could conceivably produce reasonable quantities of polymers.

Some researchers used the condensing agent dicyanamide (N=CNHC=N) to produce some peptides from glycine, even claiming, ‘dicyanamide mediated polypeptide synthesis may have been a key process by which polypeptides were produced in the primitive hydrosphere.’

However, the biggest problem is that condensing agents would readily react with any water available. Therefore it is a chemical impossibility for the primordial soup to accumulate large quantities of condensing agents, especially if there were millions of years for water to react with them. Yet the Sydney Fox experiment used a 30-fold excess of dicyanamide. And even with these unrealistic conditions, 95% of the glycine remained unreacted, and the highest polymer formed was a tetrapeptide.

 

 

*   Although chemists can make DNA in their laboratories, they can only do so under highly controlled conditions that simulate cytosol. They achieve this by using a pre-existing DNA or gene (template), using the right amount of water, magnesium chloride, and salt buffersand by using a pre-existing microscopic / molecular copy machine called DNA polymerase.  Such would not be the case in nature, since genes are not known to form by themselves, nor even simple proteins that consist of only 8 amino acids: much less complex ones that consist of 900–1000 of them, such as DNA polymerase — along with a motor protein called helicase: that actually spins like a motor (at 1800 rpms) and that unwinds the DNA.

 

**   When two amino acids come together they are called a peptide, and the reaction is called condensation or a condensation reaction **** or dehydration synthesis.  A nucleic acid is a synonym for a nucleotide, and when two or more nucleotides join together they are called an oligonucleotide.

 

***  According to the American Heritage Dictionary of Science, hydrolysis is “a process of decomposition in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by … (absorbing, or being diluted with) water.  For example, in food digestion, the food absorbs water and is broken down by hydrolysis.  The same dictionary says that to hydrolyze means “to decompose by hydrolysis …”  and that organic molecules such as “Nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides contain many bonds that hydrolyze …  In this regard, the combining word hydro- simply means “of or having to do with water.”

 

****  Think of a Condensed can of Campbell’s Soup.  The fact that it is “condensed” simply means that water has been removed.

 

References

1.   http://opus.bibliothek.uni-wuerzburg.de/volltexte/2003/554/pdf/Thesis-complete-2-library.pdf


2.   Peptide Bond at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/peptide_bond.


3.   http://biotech.about.com/od/glossary/g/hydrolysis.htm

 

4.   The Creation of Life: a cybernetic approach to evolution, 1970, pp.25-26. Available online through various book sellers. 


5.   
Chemistry by Chance: a formula for non-life, Charles McCombs: Acts & Fact, 2/09, pp. 30-31:www.icr.org/article/4348/  


6    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytosol#Water


7.   
Chemistry Refutes Chance Origin of LifePart III, by Jon Covey, B.A.,  and Anita Millen, M.D., M.P.H.,  www.creationinthecrossfire.com/Articles/ChemistryRefutes3.html 


8.   
The Design and Complexity of the Cell,  Jeffrey Tomkins, Ph. D., 2012, pp. 24-25;http://www.icr.org/design-cell/  


9.   Ref. 7 above by Tomkins, p. 79.


10. 
Life, DNA, and Proteins: Why raw materials on earth cannot produce life, at http://in6days.tripod.com/id6.html

 

See more in: EarthAge.com ; CMI

 

 

Unique properties of water proves God’s design

From: IntelligentDesignTheory

There are many unique properties of water, including the density of water, the chemical and the physical properties of water. These are properties that water should not have according to what we presently know about chemistry and physics. These characteristics strongly point to water as the result of Intelligent Design. Intelligent Design Theory should be taught in school.

 

The fact that God put certain processes in water to preserve our lakes for six thousand years cannot be taught in public schools. So after hundreds of billions of dollars wasted over the past thirty-six years, the scientific community has failed to restore all but a few lakes, while this author has restored over three thousand lakes, ponds, reservoirs and rivers by utilizing and accelerating these processes for water pollution control.

 

Water evaporates and goes up into the atmosphere to return to earth as rain thousands of miles away. As a result, water is distributed throughout the earth, producing life. A few of the billions of water molecules that Jesus drank at the well in Samaria two thousand years ago may be flowing in your bloodstream today.

 

At the time of creation, eight of what I call the H2 hydrogen atom in Section 9 combined to make the oxygen atom. When one more H2 hydrogen atom and the oxygen atom combined to make the water molecule, it was necessary for this molecule to possess at least twenty-one anomalies, properties that the laws of chemistry and physics says it should not have, in order to produce and perpetuate life. It follows that water is an extremely complex and important part of the web of life, and is probably the reason why Jesus referred to the Holy Spirit as ‘living water.’ The more we learn about the role of water in photosynthesis, the more we realize that, as in Genesis 1, the Spirit of God still moves upon the face of the waters.

Anomalies of water:

Materials That Dissolve in Water

1)         Water has an unusual ability to dissolve other substances.

Dielectric Strength

 

2)         Water has an anomalously high dielectric constant (Table 3 below).

Colloidal

 

3)         Water has the ability to form colloidal sols.

Hydrogen

 

4)         The water molecule can form hydrogen bridges with other molecules.

 

These four anomalous properties give water the ability to transport minerals and waste products in water bodies, plants and animals.  It gives water the ability to hold oxygen for animal life, and carbon dioxide for plant life. 

 

The unique dipole moment of water establishes the enormous extent of permanent-polarized bonding (ionic bonding), and the angle between chemical bonds.  These determine the water’s ability to create the multitude of necessary molecules involved in every life process.  For example, intra-molecular hydrogen bonding between the hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms in N–H bonds enables molecules to fold into proteins having specific three-dimensional shapes essential for biological activity.  If the angle between hydrogen atoms in the water molecule were different, there would be no complex life-giving molecules, and no life on earth.

Water Flow

5) The Directional Flow of Water: Water flows. When it rains, water comes down to the earth to nourish all life. It then flows towards streams and rivers to the sea where it evaporates and goes back into the atmosphere to repeat the cycle. The unidirectional flow of water in the evaporation/condensation cycle enables water all over the earth to continuously cleanse itself.

 

Because of the evaporation/condensation cycle that perpetuates life on earth, water tends to generally flow in the same direction. Because of this cycle, not only does man look up to heaven from whence comes his help, but so does virtually every other living organism. Many creatures were given fascinating features, such as anchors, moved by delicate threads spun out from their toes; or suction cups or sticky substances because water flows. Some organisms strain water by means of nets which they have grown or spun. Other organisms have special features of their mouths so they can obtain food with little expenditure of energy.

 

Because water flows, it is oxygenated and purified, and picks up nutrients for plant and animal life. Because water flows, currents carry fresh water to the equator and to the poles. Lakes near the equator have a higher oxygen demand, and accordingly are freshened by heavier rainfalls, hurricanes, typhoons, winds and wave action than lakes with lower oxygen demand.

 

Contraction

6) Water anomalously contracts at 3.9oC.  This causes an inversion and restoration of water bodies.  It takes surface oxygen down to the bottom and raises bottom toxic gases to the surface to be neutralized and exhausted. Water is not supposed to be most dense as a liquid at 4o C, or about 40o F. All other liquids are most dense when they reach the freezing or solid state. Because of this anomaly, we have spring and fall turnover of lakes in the temperate climates.

 

Without spring and fall turnover, oxygenated surface water would not go to the bottom of lakes twice a year to enable life to exist at the lake bottom so that organic sediment could be biodegraded, bottom toxic gases brought up to the surface and removed, and fish to spawn and feed on bottom-feeding insects. Without this turnover, there would be no life in our lakes. In the sub-tropic and tropic zones on earth, spring and fall turnover is replaced by hurricanes, typhoons, monsoons and torrential rains (another coincidence or Intelligent Design?).

Expansion

7) Water is one of the only compounds that expands when it freezes.  If it contracted as other compounds do, ice would sink and destroy life. Without this anomaly, ice would sink to the bottom of lakes, and the lakes in the temperate and arctic climates would be frozen from the bottom up.

 

Ice and Steam

8) Water has an unusually high melting temperature of 0oC instead of -80oC.  Its boiling temperature is +100oC, instead of about -70oC.   Graphs of adjacent molecules in the Periodic Table of Elements show a straight line relationship of melting and boiling points far below 0oC.  As examples, the hydrides of chlorine and fluorine have this same dipole characteristic, but fall smoothly on the graphs. 15

Table 1. Melting and boiling points of hydrogen compounds vertical to oxygen on the Periodic Table of Elements.

H2O                 H2S                  H2Se                H2Te

Boiling Point, C          +100                -59.6                -4.2                  -2

Melting Point, C               0                -82.9                -6.4                  -4.8

Table 2. Melting and boiling points of hydrogen compounds horizontal to oxygen in the Periodic Table of Elements.

H4C                 H3N                 H2O                 HF

Boiling Point, C          -161.4              -33.4                +100                +19.4

Melting Point, C         -182                 -77.7                      0                -8.3

According to water’s neighboring molecules in the Periodic Table of Elements, ice should melt somewhere around -100o C instead of 0o C and should boil at about -80o C instead of 100o C. If it did as it should, all water would be in the gaseous state and there would be no life on earth.

 

The water molecule has a unique dipolar nature.  This enables hydrogen atoms that are bonded covalently to the oxygen atom of one molecule to bond to the oxygen atom of adjacent water molecules.  These interactions must be disrupted to boil water and therefore causes its boiling point to be much higher than it would be if there was no hydrogen bonding.  Without this anomaly, there would be no liquid water or life on earth at earth temperatures.

 

Dielectric Strength

9) Water has an extremely high dielectric strength compared to other liquids. This gives water the ability to dissolve compounds that other liquids do not have. This peculiar nature of water permits all living organisms to transport minerals and waste products to the necessary parts of their bodies. If water could not readily dissolve compounds, there would be no life on earth.

Table 3. Relative Dielectric Constants of Some Liquids and Solids.16

Water                                       80

Abietic Acid                             4

Alcohol                                    25

Carbon Tetrachloride                2.21

Ethyl Ether                                4.8

Petroleum                                 2.1

Transformer Oil                        2.5

Turpentine                                2.2

Asbestos                                  2.7

Glass                                        4.5 – 7

Marble                                     8

Mica                                        6

Paper                                       2 – 3.5

Paraffin                                     2.3

Polystyrene                               2.6

Porcelain                                  4.5

Quartz                                      4

Rubber                                     2.5 – 3

Sulphur                                     4

Wood                                      4

Surface Tension

10) Water has a surface tension 2 – 4 times the surface tension of most organic liquids. Surface tension is highest for pure water. This enables insects called neuston to walk and live on the surface of water in low-nutrient water bodies, where they would starve if immersed in the water. This anomaly permits life when the water nutrients are too low to support life. This helps add nutrients to the subsurface water so that it will support life and insects and so that fish can then live below the surface.

 

Surface tension of water decreases when there are nutrients in the water.  Water changes its surface tension to not support neuston when nutrients in the subsurface water can support life.  This prevents further nutrient influx to the water from neuston and helps protect subsurface species from destruction by excessive nutrients.

 

Specific Heat

11) Another self-protective anomaly of water is its very high specific heat compared to other materials. Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise its temperature. This means that it is more difficult to raise the temperature of water compared to other substances. For example, the specific heat (the amount of heat in calories required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of material 1 0 C) for water is 1.0, while the specific heat for rocks is only about 0.2.  If water is frozen, its specific heat becomes half, so ice tends to warm easily. If it is liquid, it tends to be more difficult to raise the temperature. To boil, it requires a specific heat of 80. Because of this phenomenon, water tends to remain near the most desirable temperature for life on earth regardless of drastic changes in atmospheric temperatures. The anomalously high specific heat of water and the right quantity of water stabilizes earth’s temperature.

Table 4. Specific Heats of Various Elements and Liquids.17

Water                           1.0

Alcohol (ethanol)           0.548

Aluminum                      0.215

Argon                           0.124

Benzol                          0.340

Carbon (graphite)         0.170

Carbon (diamond)        0.124

Ethylene Glycol             0.528

Gold                             0.0308

Helium                          1.24

Hydrogen                     3.41

Iron                              0.106

Lead                            0.038

Magnesium                   0.243

Mercury (liquid)            0.03299

Nitrogen                       0.249

Oxygen                        0.219

Petroleum                     0.511

Potassium                     0.180

Silver                            0.0566

Sodium                         0.293

Turpentine                    0.411

Zinc                              0.0928

Evaporation

12) Water has an extremely high heat of evaporation of water compared to other liquids. The extremely high heat of evaporation causes evaporative cooling to increase in plants, animals and water bodies as temperature increases. The high evaporation rate cools plants and animals, protecting living organisms from over-heating. Its high evaporation and condensation rates match required rainfall for most of the earth.

 

Density

13) Warm water is less dense than cold water. Because of this, warm water floats on the surface of lakes, rivers and the oceans insulating the main portion of the water bodies from being over-heated by the sun and from killing its living organisms. In combination with its anomalously poor conductivity, the floating warm water insulates water bodies and living organisms against excessive heating.

 

Conductivity

14) Water is a poor conductor of heat compared to most other materials. The anomalously poor conductivity of water protects living organisms from freezing or boiling. This also protects the main portion of the water bodies from being over-heated by the sun and from killing its living organisms.

 

Osmosis and Capillary Force

15) Water also has the ability to pass through cell membranes and climb great heights in plants and trees through osmosis and capillary force. Osmotic pressure and capillary action enable water to climb hundreds of feet to the tops of the highest trees.  The mystery of osmosis enables plants to feed, and plants and animals to carry on a multitude of life processes.  Osmosis enables marine creatures to absorb fresh water in an increasing salt-water environment.  Then an increase in cell pressure causes the osmosis to reverse itself and preserve the life of the creature.  The same mysterious action takes place on a micro-scale within the bodies of all creatures.

 

Viscosity, Relaxation Time and Self-diffusion:

16, 17 and 18) Three more anomalies of water are an excessive decrease in viscosity, decrease in molecular relaxation time, and increased rate of self diffusion with temperature rises.  These also protect plants, animals, and water bodies against excessive temperatures by improving circulation.

 

Carbon Dioxide

19) Another characteristic of water is its ability to enable carbon dioxide to be released from bicarbonates to support plant life.  Water enables carbon dioxide to attach to carbonates. It is then carried in the bloodstream to capillaries in the lungs and exhausted to keep animals alive.  It can be carried to plants in soil and water to perpetuate plant life.

 

All of these anomalies of water protect not only the water bodies on the earth, but also protect the lives of all living organisms as it flows through the organisms performing its necessary life-giving functions. This strange behavior of water was built into the protons and electrons that made water at the time of creation. These anomalies of water must have been planned by an extremely intelligent Creator, rather than by accident as perceived by the mainstream scientific community.

 

Water has many more characteristics that result in life.  The unique physical properties of water, the chemistry of water, the density of water are anomalies that strongly suggest that an Infinite Intelligence created water.  If only one of these functions were missing, there would be no life on earth.

Sound and Color

20. Water is one of God’s greatest inventions. Without all the anomalies that He put in water, there would be no life. The sound and color of water is water giving praise to God, just like the sound of birds, and the color and majesty of flowers and the beauty of all creatures. All these things cause humans to subconsciously give praise and awe to God. People flock to beaches to listen to the roar or the lapping of the waves, which is God’s way of oxygenating the oceans so all the sea creatures can live. People go to the bases of waterfalls to hear the water. They rest beside bubbling streams. They love the sound of raindrops. They even love the quietness of falling snow flakes. Think of the beautiful sunsets and sunrises on lakes, and the beautiful transparent, green and blue colors of water as light shines through it.Sound travels through sea water about 4.5 times as fast as it travels through air (1531 m/s vs. 343 m/s), and is much louder than in air. At 1531 meters, that’s 16.7 football fields in one second! This gives fishes an opportunity to escape danger, and enables many sea creatures such as dolphins and whales to communicate over very long distances, even thousands of kilometers. At 500 Hz, 20o C water, Sonar is used to find objects up to 10 km away. The attenuation of sound in water depends on many factors such as frequency, intensity of the sound, depth, temperature, water chemistry, background sounds, and scatter such as from a school of fish. Dolphin seek out retarded children and the 8 Hz sound that they make seems to promote healing. Therefore dolphins have been used to heal brain-damaged children:

On dry land, the sound of ocean waves converts moist, sticky grayish-tan sea salt into dry white salt granules. This can be demonstrated away from the sea by placing commercial grade sea salt near a recording of ocean waves in a laboratory. Other sounds do not affect the salt. Does this mean that Intelligent Design has provided a means for humans and animals to utilize sea salt in their diets?

The sound of rain (2 -10 Hz) is used by sleep therapists to help people sleep. When you listen to the sound of water and see the beautiful colors of water, think of our Intelligent Designer who gave water all of its unique properties.

God bless you very much!

Is Water the Solution to how Life began?

Is Water the Solution to how Life began?

From: EarthAge


Although water is portrayed by many as the solution to, or star player in how life came to be, the fact is that water spontaneously breaks down complex molecules that living organisms need to exist: such as DNA,* RNA, proteins and their components.**   For example, an article on Molecular Cloning says that  
Proteins are usually soluble in water solutions because they have hydrophilic amino acids on their surfaces.”1

Amino acids have been called the building blocks of life, and when two or more are joined together they are called a peptide and the bond that holds them together is called a peptide bond.  When ten or more are linked together they may be called a polypeptide, and if they are ordered and folded correctly, they become a protein.  And in a wikipedia article on peptide bonds we are told that a peptide bond can be broken by … hydrolysis” ***  (just by) … “adding … water” … (and that the) “… bonds in proteins are metastable, meaning that in the presence of water they will break spontaneously.” 2

Another article on this topic 3  says that hydrolysis is:

“A chemical reaction in which water is used to break the bonds of certain substances. In biotechnology and living organisms, these substances are often polymers …such as that … (exist) between two amino acids in a protein … “

Dr. A. E. Wilder-Smith, (Ph.D. organic chemistry) also brought this out in a book he wrote on life’s complexity and origin.4

“Amino acids and other building blocks present in the macromolecules of living matter aggregate to form larger units … by … (a reaction) called condensation.****  The combinations usually involve the elimination of one molecule of  water between two combining molecules.  It is the removal of this molecule of water which presents the major difficulty  …  For, the removal of this water molecule from between two combining molecules requires energy which must … be supplied in some fashion.

“A further difficulty arises in this question of the elimination of water.  For, in the prebiotic world, it is assumed that the condensation reaction took place in the presence of a large … (supply) of water which would tend, according to the law of mass action, to hinder the condensation process and … (promote) decomposition(or breakdown of peptides and polypeptides). … The more water, the less condensation.”

“If the reaction is to proceed in the direction of the dipeptide, (or two amino acids that are joined together) … the water molecule … (that results) must be removed from the reaction system since the reaction is reversible.  If it is not removed … (it will) hydrolyze (or separate) the dipeptide back again to the constituent amino acids …”

This means the “primordial soup,” or “warm little pond”  where Darwin speculated that life began could not have been simply water, since it would “hydrolyze” or break down complex molecules back into their basic original amino acid as soon as they formed.  Dr. Charles McCombs explains the problem as follows in an article he wrote on the subject of whylife by chance  is virtually, if not utterly and completely impossible.  

“Every time one component reacts with a second component forming the polymer, the chemical reaction also forms water as a byproduct …  There is a rule of chemical reactions … called the Law of Mass Action that says all reactions proceed in a direction from highest to lowest concentration. This means that any reaction that produces water cannot be performed in the presence of water. This Law of Mass Action provides a total hindrance to protein, DNA/RNA, and polysaccharide formation because even if the condensation took place, the water from a supposed primordial soup would immediately hydrolyze them. Thus, if they are formed according to evolutionary theory, the water would have to be removed … which is impossible in a “watery” soup.5

But because the “watery soup” in living cells is surrounded by a membrane, the “water” inside the cell “behaves very differently”  than ordinary water.  In fact, the “water” in a cell is not water but a blend of water, amino acids, proteins, and many other chemicals called cytosol. This mixture is the result of the DNA’s ability to regulate what goes in and out of the cell — via  numerous channels that control and regulate what is allowed to pass through the cell membrane, and thus to create and maintain a favorable environment and PH for DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, and life itself to exist. 

If the concentration of amino acids is high enough, some of them will link up with others to form dipeptides and tripeptides.  An article on this subject states that:

It is important to recognize that by whatever reactions polymerization (or the joining of amino acids) occurred, they had to be reactions that would occur in an essentially aqueous environment. This presents difficulties because condensation of amino acids to form peptides, or of nucleotides to form RNA or DNA, is not thermodynamically favorable in aqueous solution.”{6}

The explanation for this is partly that the concentration of amino acids decreases as amino acids form pairs (called dipeptides) in a solution. This decreased concentration causes the velocity of the peptide synthesis reaction to slow down, and some dipeptides begin breaking up, again becoming single amino acids.The solution reaches equilibrium when just as many dipeptides dissociate as associate. A very tiny fraction of the dipeptides add another amino acid to form a tripeptide. … Oligopeptides (Oligo=few) and polypeptides (poly=many) will form only very rarely. Tripeptides dissociate faster than dipeptides in the same solution. 7

In this regard, a tripeptide has only three amino acids, while the simplest protein ever found has at least eight, that are all connected in a specific order.

Jeffrey P. Tomkins makes the following statement in a book on the design and complexity of the cell:

“… plasma membranes are … quite complex and … (function) as more than just a barrier … Some key functions  of the membrane involve the import and export of chemical compounds through specialized transmembrane channels, sensory and signaling processes via specialized receptor proteins imbedded in the membrane, and osmotic (water) regulation … through special portals.” 8

“Within the … membrane is the internal cell matrix … called cytosol or cytoplasm, which is a semi-fluid substance.  …  Like the … membrane, the complexity of … cytoplasm seems to grow with every new discovery in cell biology.” 8

Tomkins also tells us that water must be regulated and controlled outside the cell as well in what is called the “extra cellular matrix.” 8

This means that the water of yesteryear, or the distant past, almost certainly performed just like the water of today, and that water, dirt and chemicals, could not have created life anymore than fuel, dirt, and metallic ore, — by themselves — could create a car, motorcycle, or an  airplane: even in millions, billions, or trillions of years.  

For more on why the raw materials on earth cannot produce life, see Life, DNA, and Proteins.9  See also the links below.


*   Although chemists can make DNA in their laboratories, they can only do so under highly controlled conditions that simulate cytosol. They achieve this by using a pre-existing DNA or gene (template), using the right amount of water, magnesium chloride, and salt buffersand by using a pre-existing microscopic / molecular copy machine called DNA polymerase.  Such would not be the case in nature, since genes are not known to form by themselves, nor even simple proteins that consist of only 8 amino acids: much less complex ones that consist of 900–1000 of them, such as DNA polymerase — along with a motor protein called helicase: that actually spins like a motor (at 1800 rpms) and that unwinds the DNA.

**   When two amino acids come together they are called a peptide, and the reaction is called a condensation reaction. (See t the fourasterisks below)  A nucleic acid is a synonym for a nucleotide, and when two or more nucleotides join together they are called an oligonucleotide.

***  According to the American Heritage Dictionary of Science, hydrolysis is “a process of decomposition in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by … (absorbing, or being diluted with) water.  For example, in food digestion, the food absorbs water and is broken down by hydrolysis.  The same dictionary says that tohydrolyze means “to decompose by hydrolysis …”  and that organic molecules such as “Nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides contain many bonds that hydrolyze …  In this regard, the combining word hydro- simply means “of or having to do with water.”

****  Think of a Condensed can of Campbell’s Soup.  The fact that it is “condensed” simply means that water has been removed.

1.   http://opus.bibliothek.uni-wuerzburg.de/volltexte/2003/554/pdf/Thesis-complete-2-library.pdf
2.   Peptide Bond at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/peptide_bond.
3.   http://biotech.about.com/od/glossary/g/hydrolysis.htm
4.   
The Creation of Life: a cybernetic approach to evolution, 1970, pp.25-26. Available online through various book sellers. 
5.   Chemistry by Chance: a formula for non-life, Charles McCombs: Acts & Fact, 2/09, pp. 30-31: 
www.icr.org/article/4348/  
6    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytosol#Water
7.   Chemistry Refutes Chance Origin of LifePart III, by Jon Covey, B.A., MT, and Anita Millen, M.D., M.P.H.,
       www.creationinthecrossfire.com/Articles/ChemistryRefutes3.html 
8.   The Design and Complexity of the Cell,  Jeffrey Tomkins, Ph. D., 2012, pp. 24-25; http://www.icr.org/design-cell/  
9.   Ref. 7 above by Tomkins, p. 79.
10. Life, DNA, and Proteins: Why raw materials on earth cannot produce life, at http://in6days.tripod.com/id6.html

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